1st August 1913 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Utsunomiya, capital of the Tochigi prefecture in Japan – Hiromichi Shinohara, “The Richthofen of the Orient” – the highest scoring fighter ace of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force Service. Shot down and killed in August 1939, (aged 26)  having claimed 58 victories in only 3 months.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiromichi_Shinohara

Also, in Kiel, Germany – Hajo Hermann – “one of the Luftwaffe’s most innovative air tacticians during WWII”.  http://www.brooksart.com/Narrowescape.html

Arms Race: Japan launches the Battleship “Kongo” at the Barrow-in-Furness shipyard in England.

Society and Culture: New Zealand introduces “Time Saving” measures, whereby the clocks will be put back by 1 hour during the summer months.

Cinema: Roscoe Arbuckle releases his 1 reel film from the Keystone Company: “The Riot”. This is the twelfth Arbuckle film to be released in the last 2 months (since 29th May).

The Elite Cinema opens in Bradford, England, with an opening ceremony performed by the Lord Mayor of Bradford.

 

31st July 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Taylor, Texas – Louise Brieger Hegarty. Happy Centenary, Ma’am!

http://www.post-gazette.com/stories/life/birthdays/century-club-a-world-war-ii-goodbye-wave-made-louise-hegarty-cry-697380/

Women’s suffrage: In Hyattsville, Maryland, a motorcade of 60 vehicles sets off for Washington carrying a petition for votes for women, signed by 200,000 people.

Early Flight: Alys McKey Bryant, an american, becomes the first woman to fly a plane in Canada, when she performs in an exhibition flight for Prince Albert, Duke of York – the future King George VI of Britain.

http://www.heroines.ca/history/july.html

Sport: New Zealand acquires its first ever ski-ing club – the Ruapehu Ski Club – formed by a group of enthusiasts a few days after their first trial run on the Tama slopes of the Ruapehu mountain.

Cinema: Roscoe (“Fatty”) Arbuckle releases his 1 reel film from the Keystone Company: “Professor Bean’s Removal”. This is the eleventh Arbuckle film to be released in the last 2 months (since 29th May).

30th July 1913 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Woolwich, London – Lt Col Wingate Charlton, DSC, son of a WWI general, educated art Eton and Sandhurst. Active service in the Middle East and Germany during WW2, decorated for bravery and seriously injured during the Syrian campaign in 1941. Retired from the army in 1962 and later Deputy Lieutenant of Essex and council member of the University of Essex “where, during the ‘swinging sixties’, he proposed (unsuccessfully) that the university should have a pack of beagles and a chapel”.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1569377/Lt-Col-Wingate-Charlton.html

~ In Boston, Massachusetts – Lieutenant General Herman Nickerson, Jr – DSC, USMC, educated at Arlington and Boston University. Active service in three wars (WW2, Korea and Vietnam), Recognised with many military awards, eventually serving as Commanding General, III Marine Amphibious Force, Vietnam in 1969 and 1970. Retired from the army after 35 years as a Marine in 1970.

https://www.mcu.usmc.mil/historydivision/Whos%20Who/nickerson_h.aspx

World Affairs – Second Balkan War: The warring participants sign an armistice bringing the short and inconclusive war to an end.

Accidents: In Cincinatti, Ohio Odin Johnson, competing in a morotcycle race, loses control of his vehicle and crashes into a light pole which showers spectators with flaming petroleum. Seven spectators die and more are are injured.

29th July 1913 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Heningsdorf, Brandenburg, Germany – Erich Priebke, former SS officer and convicted war criminal extradited from Argentina in 1995 and still (2013) serving a life sentence under house arrest in Rome.

“Priebke turns 100 on Monday 29 July and is serving a life sentence, under house arrest, for his role in the 1944 Fosse Ardeatine massacre in Rome in which the Nazis killed 335 people, mostly Italians. Priebke lives near Piazza Irnerio in the city’s Balduina district where he receives numerous visitors and is a familiar figure on his daily walks in the neighbourhood, accompanied by his carer and a police escort”.

http://www.wantedinrome.com/news/2002469/erich-priebke-s-100th-birthday-angers-rome.html

Empire: The British and Ottoman Empires sign the “Anglo-Ottoman convention” of 1913, intended to set out the arrangements for governing the Persian Gulf and the surrounding area. The convention is never ratified, and will become a source of dispute once Britain and Turkey are at war.

World Affairs: Meanwhile, in London at a conference of the six “Great Powers” there is agreement that an international commission (of the six great powers) will govern newly founded Albania for up to 10 years or until they choose a suitable monarch. Within a year the six will be at war with each other, their “greatness” fading into the nineteenth century history books.

28th July 1913 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: The Republic of Gumuljina.

World Affairs: in Bucharest, Romania and Bulgaria sign a peace treaty whereby Bulgaria gives up its territory in  Southern Dobruja to Romanian control. In return, Romania will withdraw its troops, currently dangerously close to Sofia.

In Gumuljina, the Turkish Capital of Western Thrace (now Komotini, fully incorporated into Greece), the local moslem and christian inhabitants reject the treaty’s terms transferring them to Bulgarian control. Instead ~and in opposition to Greek insistence that they now belong to Bulgaria ~ they establish the independent Republic of  Gumuljina, with Komotini as the capital. The Republic will have a life of just 50 days before the Treaty of Constantinople confirms Bulgarian rule and Bulgarian forces enter the city.

Women’s Suffrage: Sylvia Pankhurst addresses a mass meeting in London’s Trafalgar Square. Meanwhile in Nottingham, UK, at a separate suffragette meeting in the market place, there is “wild disorder”.

http://mumblingnerd.com/events-and-dates-in-nottinghams-history/early-20th-century-nottingham-1900-1949/

Society, culture and crime: At a drunken annual village feast in Cambridgeshire, England – Frederick Seekings kills his common law wife, Martha-Jane Beeby, in a drunken brawl in a ditch after closing time. On 3rd November he will become the last person to be judicially executed in Cambridgeshire.

http://cambridgehistorian.blogspot.co.uk/2013/05/the-last-execution-in-cambridgeshire.html

27th July 1913 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: 

~ at Sripur in the Chittagong district of Bengal, India (now Bangladesh) – Kalpana Datta, Indian independence activist, and a member of the armed resistance movement against British rule. Later, a member of the Indian communist party, she married the General Secretary of the Communist Party of India in 1943.

~ in Scotland – John Cairncross, the so-called “fifth man” in the Cambridge spy ring which included Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean and Anthony Blunt and which spied against Britain and for the Soviets in the 1940s and 50s.

Law and Order: In Houston, Georgia, USA – a white mob lynches John Shake, a negro caught in the act of aggravated burglary of a local store. [ http://dev.emorydisc.org/galyn/lynchings/313/ ].

Society and Culture: At Brookline Farm, 40 miles west of Chicago, several thousand members of the “Loyal Order of Moose” gather “under a rented circus tent toward the south end of the new property and place the cornerstone for Mooseheart”, an institution to provide “a home, schooling and vocational training to children of deceased Moose members”. [ http://www.mooseintl.org ].

26th July 1913 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: In Glasgow, Scotland – Mary O’Rourke, a singer who moved to London aged 17 and became famous by impersonating young boy singers, appearing as “Master Joe Petersen” the Boy Soprano, and also as Master Wilfred Eaton and Michael Dawney.

Women’s Suffrage: At the end of the six week “Woman’s Suffrage Pilgrimage”,an estimated 50,000 women converge on London’s Hyde Park. The press reports the mood as orderly and “as much a demonstration against militancy as one in favour of women’s suffrage. Many bitter things were said of the militant women”. The marchers have walked to London from Newcastle, Carlisle, Lands end in Cornwall and a multitude of towns and cities along the main routes.

World Affairs – another Chinese province – Hunan – declares its independence from the central Chinese state.

Second Balkan War: The Romanian army reaches a point just ten miles short of the Bulgarian capital of Sofia, forcing the Bulgarians to sue for peace terms.

Ireland: In Dublin, Ireland – British soldiers fire into a crowd of Irish protesters, killing three and wounding nearly forty others.

Science and society: Now (in 1913) in its sixty ninth year, the journal “Scientific American” shows a cut-away view of a futuristic city, with  “The elevated sidewalk”, explaining “how it will solve city transportation problems. If the real capacity of power-propelled machinery is to be gained in city transportation, foot and vehicular traffic must be segregated. Each type of transport will then be free to develop itself along its own lines”. http://www.magazineart.org/main.php/v/technical/scientificamerican/Scientific+American+1913-07-26.jpg.html