28th July 1913 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: The Republic of Gumuljina.

World Affairs: in Bucharest, Romania and Bulgaria sign a peace treaty whereby Bulgaria gives up its territory in  Southern Dobruja to Romanian control. In return, Romania will withdraw its troops, currently dangerously close to Sofia.

In Gumuljina, the Turkish Capital of Western Thrace (now Komotini, fully incorporated into Greece), the local moslem and christian inhabitants reject the treaty’s terms transferring them to Bulgarian control. Instead ~and in opposition to Greek insistence that they now belong to Bulgaria ~ they establish the independent Republic of  Gumuljina, with Komotini as the capital. The Republic will have a life of just 50 days before the Treaty of Constantinople confirms Bulgarian rule and Bulgarian forces enter the city.

Women’s Suffrage: Sylvia Pankhurst addresses a mass meeting in London’s Trafalgar Square. Meanwhile in Nottingham, UK, at a separate suffragette meeting in the market place, there is “wild disorder”.


Society, culture and crime: At a drunken annual village feast in Cambridgeshire, England – Frederick Seekings kills his common law wife, Martha-Jane Beeby, in a drunken brawl in a ditch after closing time. On 3rd November he will become the last person to be judicially executed in Cambridgeshire.



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