13th October 1913 (Monday)

BORN TODAY:  on Dhan-Trayodashi (prior to Diwali), the mother of Ravi Joshi – “She lived for 94 eventful years, cooking till the last day”.


Society and culture: In Newcastle, Natal, South Africa a new “Satyagraha”   (insistence on truth) campaign is launched in protest at the £3 tax which has been imposed on ex-indentured Indian labourers. The tax is partially motivated by the desire to discourage Indian labourers from staying in South Africa (ie encourage them to return to India) after their contract is completed. Prominent among the wider Satyagraha activists are Mahatma Ghandi and his wife, Kasturba.


~ In Scotland, Michael Lee presents evidence to a Royal Commission on Housing:


In Lochgelly, a large proportion of the houses are very old. Others are badly rent [split, damaged], owing to underground workings. Many of the houses have no scullery or wash-house. Many have no coalhouse, coals having to be kept under the bed. While water-closets are provided, they are in many cases in the proportion of one to four families. A number of old houses at Launcherhead, near the Station, belonging to the Earl of Minto and owned by the Lochgelly Iron and Coal Company, Limited, are damp, and should be demolished.

Bowhill – this village is of recent growth, and contains the best colliery houses in the district. In a number of cases the houses are racked [twisted] by underground workings, and the roads are in bad condition. One part of this district, which is private property, is badly situated for drainage, the chief source being by means of an open ditch. In warm weather this is very offensive, and is a danger to health. In a number of cases the houses are racked by underground workings. 

In Cardenden, there are a number of old houses with ash-pits and dry-closets, and with no sculleries or wash-houses or coal cellars, coals being stored below the bed. Some of the houses are rent [split, damaged]. A number should be demolished.

In Dundonald, all the houses belong to the Lochgelly Iron and Coal Company, Limited. There are no wash-houses, and there is no lighting. However, there are sculleries attached to all the houses, which the tenants use as wash houses.

Science and technology: In the USA, inventor James Rowley registers his patent (US1090881 A) for an ankle joint for artificial limbs.



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