BORN TODAY: in Germany, Erika Bergman – Nazi slave labour camp overseer.
The Dardanelles: Having considered the options for supporting Russia by an attack threatening Constantinople, the British Foreign Office sends a message to Tsar Nicholas assuring him that there will be some form of Britsh attack against Turkey. [Burg & Purcell].
In the Caucasus: As the figthing between Russia and Turkey at the Battle of Sarikamish comes to a close, the “legend of ‘Armenian treachery’ ” is born, supporting the turkish government’s determination to “remove all traces of the Armenian population from the empire”.
From the Eastern Front, come disturbing stories that the German army has used gas for the first time as a weapon of war.