BORN TODAY: in Salford, England – James Henry Miller, better known to posterity as the singer songwriter and folk musician Ewan MacColl. The son of “an iron moulder and militant trade unionist who had moved to Salford with his wife, a charwoman, to look for work after being blacklisted in almost every foundry in Scotland” [Wikipedia].
Western Front: in German held Mezieres in France, the commander of XV Corps attends a meeting of the German Supreme Command for the Western Front. The attendees agree that the XV Corps sector, south of Ypres, will be used to test the new “gas cloud” weapon.
Science and technology: the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, inaugurates the U.S. transcontinental telephone service by making a demonstration call to Thomas Watson, his former assistant, in San Francisco.