31st July 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand – RNZAF pilot Tame Hawaikirangi Thomas Waerea, who died in Europe in 1943, aged 28, and was buried in the Hanover War Cemetery, Niedersachsen, Germany, a long way from home, but is remembered at the Auckland Museum online cenotaph.

http://www.aucklandmuseum.com/war-memorial/online-cenotaph/record/C23803

War!

War at Sea: the British steamer “Iberian” is shelled, torpedoed and sunk off the coast of Ireland by the German submarine U28. The U-boat’s skipper, Georg-Günther Freiherr (Baron) von Forstner, and five of his crewmen see a sea-monster, “a gigantic sea-animal, writhing and struggling wildly… [which shoots] out of the water to a height of 60 to 100 feet.”

All six of the sub-mariners then forget to report this strange incident until 18 years have elapsed, in 1933.

http://blogs.forteana.org/node/93

30th July, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Brighton, England – Rachel Amos (later Bromwich), “Celtic scholar celebrated for her masterly dictionary of Welsh and British legend” [The Independent].

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/rachel-bromwich-celtic-scholar-celebrated-for-her-masterly-dictionary-of-welsh-and-british-legend-2184096.html

War!

Western Front: At one of the narrowest sections of no-man’s land, at Hooge in Belgium, German soldiers surprise British defenders with six of their new Flammenwerfer (flamethrowers) to capture the Hooge crater. [Burg & Purcell: Almanac of World War 1].

http://www.ramsdale.org/hooge.htm

Australia: WIth a growing sense of unity among the Australian states, the nation holds its first “National Day”.

https://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2013/01/22/the-other-australia-day-30-july-1915/

In Gosford, New South Wales, Miss McCabe appears as “Britannia”, holding a trident. transported in a  Chrome Yellow Renault garlanded with flowers. [Flickr].

Britannia tableau, Australia Day parade, Gosford, Friday 30 July 1915

While in New Zealand, farmer and diarist George Adkin “levelled heaps in [his] Cow p[addock] all day”.

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Topic/5077

29th July 1915 (Thursday)

DIED TODAY: Major-General Henry Newport Charles Heath, son of Major-General Alfred Heath, (Royal Artillery): Heath Jr was born in 1860 and attended Clifton College and Sandhurst Royal Military College before fighting in the Anglo-Egyptian War (1882); taking part in the Anglo-Egyptian expedition to relieve General Gordon at Khartoum (1884-85); fighting in the Second Boer War in South Africa (1899-1902); and leading a command in the first world war before falling ill and dying today, aged 54.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Heath_(British_Army_officer)

 

 

27th July 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Amsterdam – Wilhelmus Johannes Maria (Willem) Hofhuizen, Dutch expressionist painter.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Hofhuizen

War!

A bored expat writes: T. E. Lawrence (later – “of Arabia”), stationed as an intelligence officer in Cairo, writes home to his family:

“There is of course, nothing happening here, or likely to happen. Reports, and ciphering and drawing maps all day. The Dardanelles show will end soon:- Syria is quite quiet, though the Armenian villages in the North have been broken up, and the people scattered to various districts. No massacres, however, as yet. I can’t think of anything else to say:- The hot weather, as Father is interested in it, will end at the end of September. It’s not very hot now – and besides I am never more than about 5 minutes in the open air.”

http://www.telstudies.org/writings/letters/1915-16/150727_family.shtml

 

26th July 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Nidubrolu in Andhra Pradesh, British India – Pragada Kotaiah, freedom fighter and parliamentarian.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragada_Kotaiah

War!

Socialism in Italy: a “rising star” of the Italian socialist party, one Benito Mussolini, expresses the view that “Italian workers should give ‘not a penny’ to the cause of war, nor spill ‘one drop of blood’ for a cause that had ‘nothing to do with it’. If the government failed to declare neutrality, the proletatriat would force it to do so”. [Mark Thompson: “The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919”].

Fire in Constantinople:  A great fire in Istanbul, later attributed to Russian areoplane bombing, destroys over 3000 buildings.

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=WC19150825.2.49.3

Submarines in the Dardanelles: the French submarine “Mariotte” is sunk by the Ottoman Navy, and its crew taken as prisoners of war.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_July_1915

Discipline on the Western Front: in the largest single judicial execution by the British during the war, 5 members of the 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment are executed on the ramparts of Ypres.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn

25th July 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Hull, Massachusetts – Lieutenant Joseph Patrick “Joe” Kennedy, Jr., the first of nine children born to American businessman, investor, and government official Joseph P Kennedy (Sr) and Rose Fitzgerald. Joe junior was killed in action during a “top a secret mission” in world war 2 [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_P._Kennedy,_Jr.

 

24th July 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: In Uelzen, Germany – Günther Schwägermann – nazi Hauptsturmführer and adjutant to doctor Joseph Goebells.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%BCnther_Schw%C3%A4germann

Accidents and disasters: at the dockside on the Chicago River, the steamship “Eastland”, which is boarding passengers for a Western Electric works outing across Lake Michigan, rolls over and capsizes. 844 passengers and crew are drowned, over 200 of them Czech immigrants.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Eastland

War!

In the Middle East: In Turkish Mesopotamia (now Iraq)  British forces take the town of Nasiriya from the Turks, and begin to prepare plans for an advance  northward to Baghdad. [Roger Ford: “Eden to Armageddon; World War 1 in the Middle East”]

22nd July 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Calcutta, in British India – Shaista Akhtar Banu Suhrawardy, better known as Begum Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah – Pakistani politician, diplomat and author, and the first muslim and Asian woman to receive a doctorate from the University of London [wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaista_Suhrawardy_Ikramullah

Public Transport: In the City of Exeter, in England, the citizens are “bickering” about the cost of tram fares:

“The discussion at the Exeter City Council meeting on tram fares will have enlightened many people, and at least one journalist in the city. I ventured to suggest, when the matter was under discussion some time ago, that the halfpenny fares, which are the cause so much bickering, should be withdrawn altogether. It was affirmed that this could not done. But it can be, because under Act of Parliament the lowest fare which the Council need accept is one penny. And I am still of the opinion that the wisest and fairest plan all round would be charge the penny. Under the present arrangement there are many who reap mean advantage, and large numbers who should benefit before others are prevented from doing because they have clean, instead of dirty, clothes. The distances which people are carried thoroughly merit a minimum charge one penny. Besides, the trams are a business, and not a charitable, concern, and should yield more profit than they do to the city.”

[Exeter and Plymouth Gazette].

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php