31st August 1915 (Tuesday)

War!

DIED TODAY: Europe’s first ever parachutist (in 1913), Adolphe Celestin Pegoud – shot down by his former student, Unteroffizier Kandulski.

http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/france/pegoud.php

BORN TODAY: Hauptmann Adolf Vogt of the German Wehrmacht, Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross .

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Vogt

An update from Cairo:  Intelligence officer T.E. Lawrence writes home to his family:  he has heard that the weather in Britain has been terrible; he sends a request for a book search for him at Blackwell’s bookshop; and, today being his mother’s birthday, he speculates that “For the next one there will probably be peace”. 

http://www.telstudies.org/writings/letters/1915-16/150831_family.shtml

30th August 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: In Swansea, Wales – Lillian May Davies, fashion model, and later Princess Lilian, Duchess of Halland, after her marriage into the Swedish Royal Family in 1976.

http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Princess_Lilian,_Duchess_of_Halland

DIED TODAY:

~ On the Thames Estuary in Purfleet, Essex – 16 cadets and their training officer on His Majesty’s Training Ship “Cornwall” when it is struck by a government tug.

https://www.thurrock.gov.uk/news/museum-and-heritage/marking-great-war-disaster-at-purfleet

~ in Mardin, near (what is now) the Turkish/ Syrian border, Ignatius Abded Mshiho II, the 61 year old Patriarch of Antioch, Head of the Syriac Orthodox Church.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignatius_Abded_Mshiho_II

~ At Gallipoli – Brigadier General P.A.Kenna VC DSO, 21st Lancers, 3rd Mounted Brigade and Lewis Leonard Grant, a labourer from Allansford, Victoria, Australia… and many others.

http://battlefields1418.50megs.com/lala_baba_cemetery.htm

https://www.aif.adfa.edu.au/showPerson?pid=116811

28th August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Boston, Massachusetts – Starling Burgess, better known as Tasha Tudor, illustrator and writer of children’s books.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tasha_Tudor

War!

On the (Turkish) home front: In the town of Cizre, near the Syrian border, the authorities execute Philippe-Jacques Abraham, an ethnic Assyrian Bishop of the Chaldean Catholic Church, and Flavianus Michael Malke, the Syrian Catholic eparch, before having their bodies dragged through the streets of Cizre.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe-Jacques_Abraham

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavianus_Michael_Malke

27th August, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Washington DC – Norman Foster Ramsey Jr, US physicist.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Foster_Ramsey,_Jr.

War!

The (British) Home Front:  The hop growers of Worcestershire are facing a serious labour shortage because inceasing numbers of men are at war and women and girls are being attracted away to better pay in munitions factories.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1915/08/threats-to-hop-crop-in-labour-shortage/

26th August 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: In Soave, near Verona – Sandro Ruffo, “one of the preeminent Italian zoologists, the only Museum curator belonging to the “Accademia dei Lincei”, and one of the most important amphipodologists in the world. He was professor of Zoology at Modena University, the director of the Natural History Museum of Verona, and was also presented with a Degree Honoris Causa in Conservation and Management of Natural Resources in 2007.”

http://www.pensoft.net/inc/journals/download.php?fileId=1999&fileTable

25th August 1915 (Wednesday)

Modern Life: In Exeter, in England’s west country, the local paper reports that 72 year old Mr Charles Steele has been fined 10 shillings at the Police Court for leaving his motor car unattended in Queen street for nearly an hour… thereby causing an obstruction. His plea that he was engaged on important business appears to have made no impression on the local magistrates.  [Western Times].

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

23rd August 1915 (Monday)

Empire and global finance

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known as Lenin, publishes his thoughts on the Social Democratic idea of a “United States of Europe”, focussing in particular on the challenge of economic union in the context of political differences:

” Capital has become international and monopolist. The world has been carved up by a handful of Great Powers, i.e., powers successful in the great plunder and oppression of nations. The four Great Powers of Europe—Britain, France, Russia and Germany, with an aggregate population of between 250,000,000 and 300,000,000, and an area of about 7,000,000 square kilometres—possess colonies with a population of almost 500 million (494,500,000) and an area of 64,600,000 square kilometres, i.e., almost half the surface of the globe (133,000,000 square kilometres, exclusive of Arctic and Antarctic regions). Add to this the three Asian states—China, Turkey and Persia, now being rent piecemeal by thugs that are waging a war of “liberation”, namely, Japan, Russia, Britain and France. Those three Asian states, which may be called semi-colonies (in reality they are now 90 per cent colonies), have a total population of 360,000,000 and an area of 14,500,000 square kilometres (almost one and a half times the area of all Europe).

Furthermore, Britain, France and Germany have invested capital abroad to the value of no less than 70,000 million rubles. The business of securing “legitimate” profits from this tidy sum—these exceed 3,000 million rubles annually—committees of the millionaires, known as governments, which are equipped with armies and navies and which provide the sons and brothers of the millionaires with jobs in the colonies and semi-colonies as viceroys, consuls, ambassadors, officials of all kinds, clergymen, and other leeches.

That is how the plunder of about a thousand million of the earth’s population by a handful of Great Powers is organised in the epoch of the highest development of capitalism. No other organisation is possible under capitalism. Renounce colonies, “spheres of influence”, and the export of capital? To think that it is possible means coming down to the level of some snivelling parson who every Sunday preaches to the rich on the lofty principles of Christianity and advises them to give the poor, well, if not millions, at least several hundred rubles yearly.

“A United States of Europe under capitalism is tantamount to an agreement on the partition of colonies.”

https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1915/aug/23.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22nd August 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Brantford, Ontario – James Hiller, co-developer of the electron microscope.

http://www.nndb.com/people/125/000206504/

War!

The (Russian) Home Front: The Tsar takes over supreme command of the army, and leaves St Petersburg in the dangerous hands of the Tsarina and her trusted advisor, Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin, a peasant and mystical faith healer.

http://www.johndclare.net/Russ_Rasputin_Figes.htm

The (French) Home Front: in the streets of Paris, young boys and girls play at being soldiers and nurses.

http://www.vintag.es/2015/04/kids-at-war-paris-1915-rare-photographs.html

The (Scottish) Home Front: in Aberdeen, 26,000 pay sixpence each to attend the “Gala and Heather day” in Duthie Park, in support of the Aberdeen Royal Infirmary.

http://www.friendsofduthiepark.co.uk/heather-day-at-duthie-park-a-century-on/

The (Irish) Home Front: In Dublin, at a “Celebration of gaelic and athletic events”, Patrick Pearse addresses the crowd of several thousand on his subject: “The Resurrection of Erin”.

http://www.millstreet.ie/blog/2015/08/19/patrick-pearse-and-his-visit-to-millstreet-on-22nd-aug-1915