29th June 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: Frank Slade, Australian rules footballer.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Slade

War!

In Africa: British forces take control of Ngaundere in German Kamerun (“the battle of Ngaundere”).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ngaundere

The British home Front:  The Western Times appeals to its readers to play their part in protecting infantrymen and artillery men  at the front:

SANDBAGS
Millions Wanted, but They Must be the Right Kind
DO TRENCH WORK AT HOME

“… The soldier’s life depends on the integrity of the sandbag sent to him, so do not betray him by sending him bags wrongly made…They must have 1in. turnings, and must be strongly made. The Mayoress’s Depot at Exeter is open to receive any amount of sandbags, and they should be sent in without delay”. 

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

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23rd June 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Mayfair, London – Robin “Monty” Montgomerie-Charrington, formula 1 racing driver.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Montgomerie-Charrington

War!

The Isonzo Front: The Italian Third Army launches a mjor offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces along a 21 mile front stretching inland from the Adriatic. [Burg & Purcell].

East Africa: After British forces successfully destroy the German wireless station and arsenal at Bukoba, in German East Africa, “Brigadier General James Stewart grants his troops permission to loot Bukoba. The men, joined by their officers, go on a shameless, drunken orgy of vandalism, rape and pillage” [Burg & Purcell]…

…British papers reported the events differently…

As it was not intended to hold Bukoba, the force re-embarked on June 23rd, leaving the town “a sorry sight, and being plundered and looted by the local inhabitants who swarmed in to complete the enemy’s discomfiture”.

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=160859

Spy!  at 6.00AM in the “miniature rifle range” at the Tower of London, German spy Carl Muller is executed by a firing squad of 8 riflemen.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/carl_muller.htm

10th June 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Lachine, Quebec, Canada – Saul Bellow, Pulitzer and Nobel winner.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saul_Bellow

War!

Africa: At the second battle of Garua, British and French troops defeat a defending force to take control of the German colony of Kamerun.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Garua

 

3rd February 1915 (Wednesday)

EXECUTED TODAY:

~ in Sarajevo, then in the condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Austria-Hungarian Empire (now the capital of independent Bosnia Herzegovina) – Danilo Ilic, a member of the “black hand” secret society who recruited Gavrillo Princip, is executed (along with two others) for his part in the assassination of Archduke Franz-Ferdinand in the summer of 1914.

http://real-life-villains.wikia.com/wiki/Danilo_Ili%C4%87

In Malawi, the Reverend John Chilembwe, “freedom fighter”, is shot dead by colonial police forces while allegedly resisting arrest for his part in a recent attack on, and murder of, several European settlers. “Chilembwe led the uprising in early January fighting for freedom from social injustices faced by his countrymen, and was killed at noon [on] 3rd February 1915” [The Maravi Post].

http://www.maravipost.com/201501107938/Society/malawians-and-mutharika-to-honor-john-chilembwe-centenary-celebrations-from-15th-%E2%80%93-17th-jan-2015.html

 

War!

In the Middle East: British and Egyptian troops, including a British naval contingent, defeat the long expected Turkish attack on the Suez Canal. The German advisers to the Turkish forces begin to realise that their hopes of an Islamic uprising against British power in Egypt and India are misplaced, with evidence before and after the attack that the local Arab forces show no particular loyalty or botherhood with their Turkish masters, and that the Egyptian forces will not easily be turned against their colonial masters  [Scott Anderson: “Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East” ].

http://www.1914-1918.net/suez.htm

 

 

14th November 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Belfast, Ireland – Joseph Barnes, professor of tropical medicine at the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and good samaritan in West African leper colonies in the 1940s.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Barnes_(Irish_doctor)

War!

Western Front: As the first Battle of Ypres in Belgium is drawing to a close, the dead on both sides cannot be counted. Only estimated: around a quarter of a million men killed or wounded. And each with parents… wives… siblings… children… grieving.

In Constantinople (now Istanbul) Sheikh-ul-Islam declares an Islamic holy war on behalf of the Ottoman government, urging his Muslim followers to take up arms against Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/ottoman-empire-declares-a-holy-war

On the “home front” – The New York Times reports an “incident” in one of the “concentration camps” where the British are detaining German and Austrian immigrants.  One german detainee is killed and another injured at the camp in Surrey.

http://spartacus-educational.com/FWWconcentration.htm

26th October 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Los Angeles – Uncle Fester.

http://www.historyorb.com/people/jackie-coogan

War!

In Africa: in German Kamerun (now independent Cameroon), British and French forces successfully eject the German garrison from the town of Edea in the “first battle of Edea”.

wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Edea

Crime and punishment: In Sarajevo, the group who plotted successfully to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28th June are found guilty. Those over the age of 20 are sentenced to death, and the younger perpetrators, including the actual assassin, Gavrilo Princip, are given twenty year sentences. [Burg and Purcell]

 Peace

Fashion: In London, the Guardian newspaper reports on the impact of the war on high fashion:

“One is decidedly struck with the tendency to adopt – or rather adapt – several military styles of coats and capes. The cavalier cape of the summer has become more ample and closely fitting round the throat, while the loose military coat, slightly double-breasted and buttoning close to the neck, with a band collar or edging of narrow fur, is both extremely becoming and useful. These are usually made of a heavy face-cloth or velour, and must, of course, be lined with a silk of contrasting colour. An adaptation of the Russian soldier coat is another favourite. This is cut on somewhat straighter lines than the former and has a sash or girdle of heavy cord and tassel round the waist, tied loosely to the front or side.” [The Guardian, 26th October 1914].

http://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2013/oct/23/first-world-war-military-fashion-1914

Leisure: In New Zealand, farmer George is studying the geology of the USA in his free time.

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/topic/4800

8th August 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: In London, England – Unity Valkyrie Mitford, “an aristocratic English socialite who was a devotee of Adolf Hitler”.  [Wikipedia]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unity_Mitford

War!

Across Western Europe: Many thousands of the figthing men of many nations are converging on Belgium, Luxembourg and the Rhine…

In Eastern Europe: German soldiers are also pressing East through Poland, as Russian men move West…

In German East Africa: The British cruiser “Astraea” arrives off the coast and begins to shell Dar Es Salaam, landing a few troops for good measure. The ship’s captain and the local German authorities agree a truce, but neither of their Imperial masters are happy with the arrangement [Burg and Purcell: “Almanac of World War 1“].

In Britain, Parliament hastily introduces DORA – the Defence of the Realm Act, giving sweeping authoritarian powers to the Government:

”  ‘No person shall by word of mouth or in writing spread reports likely to cause disaffection or alarm among any of His Majesty’s forces or among the civilian population’.  The trivial peacetime activities no longer permitted included flying kites, starting bonfires, buying binoculars, feeding wild animals bread, discussing naval and military matters or buying alcohol on public transport. Alcoholic beverages were watered down and pub opening times were restricted to noon–3pm and 6:30pm–9:30pm (the requirement for an afternoon gap in permitted hours lasted in England until 1988).”  [quoted on Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defence_of_the_Realm_Act_1914

In British India: The first Indian troops involved in World War 1 leave India headed for Egypt, where the plan is to hold them in reserve (for example if more British troops are required in Europe). The reality will be different: they will join the Allied forces fighting on the Western Front.

http://www.black-history.org.uk/pavilionindian.asp

Peace:

Exploration: Sir Ernest Shackelton’s “Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914–17)”, also known as the “Endurance Expedition” leaves Plymouth, England, bound for Argentina, and ultimately for the Antarctic. The ship, “Endurance” , leaves without Sir Ernest, who is detained on expedition business but will join the expedition in Buenos Aires.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Trans-Antarctic_Expedition