6th August, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Budapest in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now the capital of Hungary) to American heiress Gladys Virginia Steuart and her husband, Count Gyula Apponyi de Nagy Appony – “The “White Rose of Hungary”, Countess Géraldine Margit Virginia Olga Mária Apponyi de Nagy-Appony, who worked as a shorthand typist and shop assistant, and later as Queen Geraldine of the Albanians, the Queen Consort of King Zog I, who reigned from 1928 to 1939.

After more than 60 years of wandering refugee life (including spells at the Ritz and at Ascot), Geraldine was permitted to return to communist Albania in 2002, where she died 5 months later in a military hospital, still insisting that her son, Leka Zogu, was the legitimate King of the Albanians. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geraldine_of_Albania

1st March 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Solesmes, in northern France – Gustave Choque, mathematician.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Choquet

War!

Southern Europe: Stirred in part by the belief that the Allies are making progress against Turkey in the Dardanelles, and therefore might overwhelm Turkey before the Italians have created a negotiating position fror themselves, the Italian general staff puts the army on a “red alert” for mobilisation. A secret proposal is presented in London whereby Italy’s reward for joining the Allies would be significant gains in the South Tyrol, Trieste, Gorizia and Istria, Dalmatia, Kotor (in modern Montenegro) and Albania, effectively turning the Adriatic into an Italian fjord. [Mark Tompson: “The White War, Life and Death on the Isonzo Front, 1915-1919″].

In the Dardanelles:  British fishing trawlers, equipped as minesweepers and with largely civilian crews, begin a two week attempt to clear the straits of mines.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/march-1915.html

The Home Front: in London, on St David’s Day, the newly formed Welsh Guard (part of the British Guards Division) mounts its first “Kings Guard” at Buckingham Palace.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_Guards

4th February, 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: In London – Norman Joseph Wisdom, OBE, flyweight boxing champion, magician’s sidekick, Charlie Chaplin’s “favourite clown”, cult figure in Albania, granted the freedom of the city of Tirana.

“I was born in very sorry circumstances. Both of my parents were very sorry.” [Wikipedia]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Wisdom

War!

Middle East: The British Viceroy of India, Charles Hardinge, Lord Penshurst (who is responsible for overseeing British policy and interests in the Middle East) arrives in Basra for a tour of inspection of the British  and (mainly) Anglo-Indian troops there [Roger Ford: “Eden to Armageddon: World War 1 in the Middle East”].

War at Sea: Germany publicly declares a war zone encircling the British Isles in which all merchant ships, regardless of their origin or purpose, may be sunk by submarines without warning. [Burg & Purcell].

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/germanadmiraltydeclaration.htm

Peace: 

Accident at the quayside: At dock in Great Yarmouth, on England’s east coast, E-class submariner and Petty Officer First Class, Albert George Hodder, is returning from  a shopping trip into the town when he slips from a gangplank into a strong cold current and is drowned.

http://www.wessexwfa.org.uk/articles/great-yarmouth.htm

24th November 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Lushnjë, Albania – Fahredin Nuri, hydraulic engineer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fahredin_Nuri

~ in London – Lynn Russell Chadwick, architect turned semi-abstract sculptor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynn_Chadwick

Exploration

Ernest Shackleton’s antarctic expedition photographs the Head of Moraine Fjord, South Georgia, in a silver bromide print which will later be presented to Britain’s King George V,

http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/2580048/head-of-moraine-fjord-south-georgia

16th July 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: Henoch Raberaba – Australian landscape artist.

http://www.hermannsburgschool.com/?artists

http://www.cooeeart.com.au/aboriginal_archive_region/hermannsburg_nt/henoch_raberaba/A

World Affairs: from her chosen retirement retreat, a cottage overlooking the Marne Valley, east of Paris, American Mildred Aldrich writes “ It is all the fault of that nasty affair in (sic) Servia… It is  nasty outlook. We are simply holding our breaths here.” [Mildred Aldrich: “A Hilltop on the Marne”]

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Hilltop-Marne-Mildred-Aldrich-ebook/dp/B00J75NFC4/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1403458151&sr=1-1&keywords=hilltop+on+the+marne

Migration and displacements:  Harry Lamb, the British delegate on the International Control Commission (overseeing the administration of the new Albanian state, on behalf of the Great Powers) writes to Sir Edward Grey, the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, highlighting the plight of displaced Chams (Greek muslims from the region known to Albanians as Chameria, but considered by Greeks to be a part of Epirus, recently taken (or reclaimed) by Greece. The Cham refugees are in the southern Albanian seaport of Vlora.

http://www.elsie.de/en/books/b65.html

 

 

19th May 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Vienna in the Austro-Hungarian Empire – Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM (Order of Merit); CH (Order of the Companions of Honour); CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire); FRS (Fellow of the Royal Society); emigree from Nazi Austria; accidental expert on glaciers; internee in Canada on the orders of Winston Churchill; molecular biologist; Nobel prize winner; founder and Chair of the Medical Reseach Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology at Cambridge (England).

His parents hoped that he would become a lawyer” [Wikipedia]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Perutz

World Affairs: Essad Pasha Toptani,  a wealthy Albanian landowner who is also the minister of war and of the interior for the new Albanian state, and who is suspected of fomenting the Peasant’s Revolt, (later) records in his memorandum on Albania (1919) how a group of “Austrophile” gendarmes, led by a Dutch officer, attempt to take him prisoner:

“At the time, I was Minister of War and of Internal Affairs, and was interim Prime Minister. I consented, but on condition that the Italian Minister to the Albanian Court take charge of me. Under such circumstances, I was obliged to leave my country and take refuge initially in Rome and then in Paris”.

http://www.albanianhistory.net/texts20_1/AH1919.html

Science and technology: On New Zealand’s North Island, after centuries of going its own way, the Rangitāiki River (the longest river in the Bay of Plenty region) is from today re-channelled through a different, man-made, course so that a swamp can be drained and turned into farmland.

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/bay-of-plenty-places/page-8

19th February, 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: at Begles, Aquitaine, France – Jacques Dufilho, comic actor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Dufilho

World Affairs: In Epirus on the fault line between orthodox Christian Greece and Muslim Albania, relief worker Raymond Duncan sends his third telegram to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Sir Edward Grey, reporting on atrocities committed against the local Muslim community.

http://www.elsie.de/en/books/b65.html