21st August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Copenhagen – Anna Rachel Rastén, the Danish singer better known as Raquel Rastenni.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raquel_Rastenni

MODERN AGRICULTURE: In California, the Pacific Rural Press reports on a Texan farmer’s recent success in breeding “Cattelo”, a hybrid cattle and buffalo stock.

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=PRP19150821.2.30#

War!

Gallipoli: In what will prove to be the last major offensive in the Gallipoli campaign, a force of New Zealand, Ghurka and (later) Australian troops launches the attack on “Hill 60”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hill_60_(Gallipoli)

Armenian expulsions: Harrowing stories continue to emerge about the forced mass expulsion of Armenians through and out of Anatolia.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=H0mfmdThGLAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=21st+august+1915+-gallipoli&source=bl&ots=GIsbap3vY7&sig=H-UY5YAYnsVE2LuaPaZWWKJoyWc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCYQ6AEwADgKahUKEwi1oamG37XHAhUBz3IKHbpHD-0#v=onepage&q=21st%20august%201915%20-gallipoli&f=false

 

18th August 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Denton, North Carolina – Max Lanier, left handed pitcher.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Lanier

War!

Armenia: The New York Times reports on the horrors of the Turkish treatment of Armenians:
“Armenians are sent to perish in the desert. Turks accused of plan to exterminate Whole Population. People of Karahissar massacred” [New York Times]

http://www.genocide-museum.am/eng/media.php

1st August 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in the skies over the Western Front – The Fokker Scourge.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokker_Scourge

Ireland: At the funeral of exiled Irish Fenian Jeremiah O’Donovan Rosse, Pádraig Pearse gives “one of the most famous speeches of the Irish independence movement stirring his audience to a call to arms” [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeremiah_O%27Donovan_Rossa

The Funeral of Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa, 1st August 1915.

Some, at least, in Ireland, do not forget the call to arms:

https://www.facebook.com/therising2016

War!

In the Near East: the new (and incomplete) Germany to Baghdad railway begins transporting Armenians out of Anatolia and into Aleppo, now a (still troubled) city in Syria. Within 3 weeks, 20,000 are deported, and tales of abuse and atrocities are multiplying. [a report quoted in: “The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916”, by Bryce et al]

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=H0mfmdThGLAC&pg=PA556&lpg=PA556&dq=1st+august+1915&source=bl&ots=GIrjbyYxWc&sig=qQZGkXxAI0jTTVWfwZmdIsnB6Yc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBTh4ahUKEwiXs7zx7oDHAhVBkBQKHTvmA64#v=onepage&q=1st%20august%201915&f=false

27th July 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Amsterdam – Wilhelmus Johannes Maria (Willem) Hofhuizen, Dutch expressionist painter.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_Hofhuizen

War!

A bored expat writes: T. E. Lawrence (later – “of Arabia”), stationed as an intelligence officer in Cairo, writes home to his family:

“There is of course, nothing happening here, or likely to happen. Reports, and ciphering and drawing maps all day. The Dardanelles show will end soon:- Syria is quite quiet, though the Armenian villages in the North have been broken up, and the people scattered to various districts. No massacres, however, as yet. I can’t think of anything else to say:- The hot weather, as Father is interested in it, will end at the end of September. It’s not very hot now – and besides I am never more than about 5 minutes in the open air.”

http://www.telstudies.org/writings/letters/1915-16/150727_family.shtml

 

10th July 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Windsor, England and educated at Sherborne school – “the Great Omani”, escapalogist. Before he died in 2007, aged 92, he wrote a short poem for his funeral:

They lay the Great Omani in his box
 They have done it up with nails not locks
 But at his funeral do not despair
Chances are he won’t be there.

[Wikipedia]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Omani

War!

Armenia: Turkish troops massacre Armenians in villages near Mush [Burg & Purcell].

New Zealand: The hospital ship Maheno leaves Wellington, bound for the Dardanelles.

www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/photo/maheno-leaves-wellington-1915

30th June 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in five schools in north east Surrey and (what is now) south west London –  the Croydon War Hospital, under the command of Colonel Morris and  staffed by 80 nurses, “many of whom were members of the local Voluntary Aid Detachments.  (However, at one time, the entire nursing staff consisted of nurses from Australia.) “

http://ezitis.myzen.co.uk/croydonwar.html

War!

War at Sea: off the coast of Kent, the British destroyer HMS Lightning strikes a mine, which splits it in  half, sending its bow section and 15 of its crew to a watery grave.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Lightning_(1895)

Gallipoli: Australian soldiers, pinned to their positions for many weeks since the initial Gallipoli landing, are praying for rain. Herbert Reynolds records in his diary: “At about 9pm a thunder storm passed over but we got very little rain, a good fall of rain now would be welcome as we are depending on the water from the boats for our supply, the holes in the gullies are all dry and there is no water other than that in our vicinity except salt sea water.”

https://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/06/30/wednesday-30th-june-1915-diary-of-hv-reynolds/

Turkish Armenia: In the city of Tarsus in the south east of Turkey, a foreign resident confides in a diary: “Half the town want to ‘store’ things here, to be ours if they [ie – Armenian deportees] never return; rugs, coppers, etc.—but we may be blown up, who knows?”

http://www.armeniansgenocide.am/images/menus/162/451-462.pdf

24th May 1915 (Monday)

Turkey’s war!

Gallipoli: a brief truce is arranged between the warring nations so that the thousands of dead on both sides can be buried.

http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/pt/digitalnz/record/1206500

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/34113/gallipoli-armistice

Anatolian atrocities: In response to growing tales of forced marches and massacres of Armenians in Anatolia by the Turkish government, the foreign ministers of the Triple Entente (France, Russia and Britain) issue a proclamation vowing that Young Turk (party) leadership would be held responsible for “these new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization”.  In response, the Turkish cabinet three days later approves the “Provisional Law of Relocation” by which the army is “authorised and compelled to crush in the most severe way any sign of resistance or aggression among the population… including to transfer and relocate the populations of villages and towns, either individually or collectively in response to military needs or…any signs of treachery or betrayal”  

“By best estimate, some 800,000 of the Armenian deportees were to perish – starved, shot, or beaten to death – en route [to the] “barren reaches of northern Syria”.

[Scott Anderson: “Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East”]

http://www.armenian-genocide.org/Affirmation.160/current_category.7/affirmation_detail.html