20th April 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: In Rio de Janeiro – Aurora Miranda da Cunha Richaid, Brazilian entertainer, and sister of Carmen.

https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=Aurora+Miranda+da+Cunha+Richaid&biw=992&bih=513&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=Q30yVaLBLsqxygP2kYDYCw&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&dpr=2.5#imgrc=juLuhVPQfVVP4M%253A%3BST7ncRLcj40yHM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fupload.wikimedia.org%252Fwikipedia%252Fcommons%252F5%252F5c%252FAurora_Miranda_Tres_Caballeros.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fen.wikipedia.org%252Fwiki%252FAurora_Miranda%3B480%3B360

War!

Dardanelles: More than 200 ships are now assembled in the harbour at Mudros, Lemnos, in preparation for the British and French invasion of Turkey.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/april-may-1915.html

Turkish Armenia: In Van, in Eastern Turkey, during an incident between Armenian citizens and the Turkish authorities, two Armenians are shot dead, escalating to reprisals, and then to the “siege” of the City by Turkish troops and a corresponding insurgency by Armenian resistance forces.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defense_of_Van_%281915%29#City_under_siege.2C_20_April

The view from Cairo: T.E.Lawrence writes to a colleague about his frustrations and experiences as an Intelligence Officer in Egypt:

“It’s very dull: but of course I haven’t any training as a field officer, and I don’t know that I want to go fighting up to Constantinople. It would be bad form, I think. The only place worth visiting is A [Alexandretta – on the modern Syria/ Turkey border] and they are all afraid of going there, for fear of hurting the feelings of our allies. [ie the French, who have designs on Syria].

“The [Suez] Canal is still holding out, and we are forgetting all about it. Turkey, if she is wise, will raid it from time to time, and annoy the garrison there, which is huge, and lumbersome, and creaks so loudly in the joints that you hear them eight hours before they move…

… I bought you a seal the other day. It’s probably the only one you’ll get from us this year, which is almost its only virtue. One wouldn’t have bought it anywhere else, but in Cairo it was refreshing. For Leeds, I am sending a mediaeval dagger pommel – or piece of horse-trapping – bought in Jerusalem lately.

Poor old Turkey is only hanging together. People always talk of the splendid show she has made lately, but it really is too pitiful for words. Everything about her is very very sick, and almost I think it will be good to make an end of her, though it will be very inconvenient to ourselves. I only hope that Aleppo and Damascus will escape a little the fate that has come upon Cairo. Anything fouler than the town buildings, or its beastly people, can’t be”.

http://www.telstudies.org/writings/letters/1915-16/150420_hogarth.shtml

8th April, 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Zagreb, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now the capital of Croatia) – Ivan Supek, Croatian physicist, philosopher, playwright, writer and peace activist [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Supek

War!

The (Turkish) Home Front: In Zeitoun, in Cilicia, south east Turkey, the Turkish government begins the first of its year long systematic program of deporting Armenians. The official justification for the program is the belief that Armenians have been supporting, and in some cases fighting alongside, Russian invading forces from the Caucasus region.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=H0mfmdThGLAC&pg=PA642&lpg=PA642&dq=8th+april+1915&source=bl&ots=GIqijy0oQb&sig=ckm7S0LUp6E7Uvg6M9K915AP9Hk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nXUdVav7OtHmaNiWgNAD&ved=0CEgQ6AEwCTgK#v=onepage&q=8th%20april%201915&f=false

4th March, 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: The Australian 4th Light Horse Brigade: “Shipped to Egypt without horses where it was broken up 26 August 1915″. [http://www.diggerhistory.info/].

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-a-l-horse/4th_lh_bde.htm

War!

Counting chickens: The Allied “Triple Entente” nations – Russia, France and Britain – begin secret talks on how to divide up the lands of the Ottoman Empire (The “Constantinople Agreement”, agreed two weeks from today on 18th March 1915). In the event, the agreement is never implemented because: firstly, the British and French campaign in the Dardanelles fails; and secondly, the Russian empire collapses (temporarily at least) with the Bolshevik revolution in 1917, which takes Russia out the war (and the subsequent peace) completely.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinople_Agreement

In the Dardanelles: HMS Agamemnon spends the day with its 9.2 inch Mk XI guns trained relentlessly on the Turkish forts at Sedd el Bahr (“Walls of the Sea”).

Across Turkey’s north west frontier, in Bulgaria (its recent foe in the second Balkan War): The Bulgarian Armenian Committee telegraphs to London confirming a force of 20.000 Armenian Volunteers who want to fight against the Turks and await British assistance to assist them to Iskenderun province (the ancient greek city of Alexandretta on the borders of Turkey and what is now Syria).

http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=80c_1416808936

Peace:

Life on the land: In Connecticut, USA – farmer Frank Seger records his day in his diary:

“8 Above” [that is,  8 Fahreneit – well below freezing]

“Clear & cold as Hell and Damnation. Began to warm up after noon. Heman took the milk. Lewis dug load of dirt down in the little meadow for box stall was 8 inches of frost. Cleaned out barn to load of munare [sic] up to Comestocks. Boys cut some stalks. I went up and helped Rubin Wolf saw down trees.”

http://www.onsegermountain.org/seger/march1915.html

5th February, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in New York City – Robert Hofstader, Nobel prize winning nuclear physicist.

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1961/hofstadter-facts.html

War!

In the Ottoman Empire: the Philadelphia “Saturday Evening Post” publishes a Turkish proclamation announcing and justifying the deportation of Armenians from the Empire.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Up6V6UFMCqAC&pg=PA641&lpg=PA641&dq=5th+february+1915&source=bl&ots=Um5mFRiG79&sig=TxakTyFs1oZCuc0hypEiGL8RUXU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=6c7MVPWhNYTWarbFgMAL&ved=0CDkQ6AEwBTgo#v=onepage&q=5th%20february%201915&f=false

On the Home Front: in London, Lancelot Dickinson Chapman is exposed in the Daily Mirror newspaper under the headline “Bogus VC Hero” after he spent several months “invent[ing] a persona for himself as a battlefield hero” . Later in the month he is sentenced to 10 months hard labour for his deception. [Great War London, blog].

https://greatwarlondon.wordpress.com/2012/05/20/a-fake-hero/

3rd January 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Germany, Erika Bergman – Nazi slave labour camp overseer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erika_Bergmann

War!

The Dardanelles: Having considered the options for supporting Russia by an attack threatening Constantinople, the British Foreign Office sends a message to Tsar Nicholas assuring him that there will be some form of Britsh attack against Turkey. [Burg & Purcell].

In the Caucasus: As the figthing between Russia and Turkey at the Battle of Sarikamish comes to a close, the  “legend of ‘Armenian treachery’ ” is born, supporting the turkish government’s determination to “remove all traces of the Armenian population from the empire”.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/spotlights/armenian.htm

From the Eastern Front, come disturbing stories that the German army has used gas for the first time as a weapon of war.

http://www.worldwar1.com/arm006.htm

13th November 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Fulham, London – Leonard Appelbee, painter.

http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/leonard-appelbee-655

War!

~ At Khenifra in the Atlas Mountains, in the French “Protectorate” of Morocco around 5000 tribesmen from the Zayanes confederation (of Berber tribes) clash with French colonial forces at the Battle of El Herri. Over 800 men die, around 75% from the French forces. The Zayan war will continue until 1921.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_El_Herri

~ In Ploegsteert Wood in Flanders, Belgium (“Plugstreet”), it rains hard all day. The mud is 3feet deep, and movement is “difficult”.

http://somersetremembers.wordpress.com/tag/december-1914/

~ The New York Times reports that the Turkish Armenians are now “in armed revolt” and “see day of deliverance” (ie from Turkish rule) by being “ready to join Russian invaders”.

Click to access turkisharmeniansinarmedrevolt.pdf

Peace

In Dublin, businessman Martin Fitzgerald is charged with driving at speeds in excess of 30 miles per hour. He describes the charge as ‘absurd’, but is convicted of driving ‘at a speed dangerous to the public’, and fined 40 shillings.

http://www.rte.ie/centuryireland/articles/businessman-fined-for-exceeding-30-miles-per-hour

 

 

 

7th November 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Neola, Iowa – Raphael Aloysius Lafferty, “secret sci-fi genius more than ready for a comeback” and possibly “the most important science-fiction writer you’ve never heard of” [the Guardian book blog].

http://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2014/aug/13/ra-lafferty-secret-sci-fi-genius-poised-for-comeback

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R._A._Lafferty

War!

In the USA, the “Fort Wayne News” reports that the Armenians in Turkish Armenia are “aiding the Russians in the campaign against Turkey” and besieging the Turkish town of Van.

http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2007/11/2194-armenians-aiding-russians-besiege.html

3rd November 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Japanese occupied Port Arthur  in the Kwantung Leased Territory (a territorial concession from the Chinese to Western Powers) on the Liáodōng Peninsula in Manchuria (now Dalian in North East China – voted “China’s most livable city” in 2006) – Saburo Okita, Japanese economist, politician and briefly Minister for Foreign Affairs.

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saburo_Okita

War!

Russia declares war On Turkey, and British and French forces bombard the Turkish forts at the entrance to the Dardanelles. Montenegrin forces bombard the Austro-Hungarian naval base at Cattaro (modern Kotor). The British bombard Aqaba (then a Turkish possession, now in Jordan) on the Red Sea Gulf of Aqaba.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_11_03.htm

The German navy unsuccessfully raids Great Yarmouth on England’s East coast.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raid_on_Yarmouth

The North Sea: disregarding complaints about International Law, the British government declares the whole of the North Sea a “military area”, and requires all neutral merchant ships in future to put into British ports for inspection and subsequent escort, without   any ‘illegal’ cargo bound for Germany. [UK Government archives].

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/spotlights/blockade.htm

In Armenia, near the foot of Holy Mount Ararat (later successfully annexed by Turkey), Russian forces occupy the town of Bayazid.

Middle East: The 16th Brigade, Indian soldiers who left Bombay on 16th October, arrive at the mouth of the Shatt Al-Arab waterway in (what is now) southern Iraq. [Roger Ford – “Eden to Armageddon: World War 1 in the Middle East”].

 

 

7th April 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Yozgat, Central Anatolia – Ramela Carman, Armenian genocide survivor, clothing factory worker at 11, and emigrant to America in 1960.

http://www.dailytribune.com/general-news/20140403/former-pontiac-woman-99-recalls-her-survival-of-armenian-genocide

Died Today: In Lahore in British India (now in Pakistan) – Ghazi Mohammad Ayub Khan, aka “The Victor of Maiwand” and “The Afghan Prince Charlie”. At various times, the Emir of Afghanistan, the Governor of Herat Province, and the leader of the Afghans in the second Anglo-Afghan War. Remembered today as an Afghan National hero.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammad_Ayub_Khan

Fire: In the district of Uttlesford in Essex, England, a passing traction engine on the London to Newmarket road releases sparks into the westerly wind which trigger a fire in the thatched cottages of the village of Little Chesterford. Before the fire is extinguished it destroys two farms, two public houses and nine homes, leaving forty-three people homeless – around 1 in 5 of the village’s population.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Chesterford

Crime, delinquency and punishment: In Exeter, England a twelve year old boy is found guilty of firing an air-gun in the street, and of threatening another boy with the weapon. The magistrates order the father to whip the boy.

The newspaper comments:   “It seems to be the fashion among a certain section of young men in the city to stand about the streets in gangs, blocking up the pavements, and when requested to make room for more orderly members of Society responding with language more forcible than polite. A general nuisance to others, and but little service to themselves, it is time these young hooligans were brought to book. The other evening I noticed a particularly abusive group take possess of part of the pavement in Fore-street. Several gentlemen accompanied by lady friends were obliged to step on to the road, and one of them, who remonstrated with the young men. was answered with very vile language. The same evening another gang took their stand in Fore-street, opposite the entrance to Market-street. Although they remained on the road they were quite as great a nuisance, and several cyclists were forced to dismount. as the gang refused to budge, and only laughed when one cyclist fell off in trying to avoid collision with one of the gang. Surely it is time the police dealt in a sharp manner with these pests.”  [The Western Times, 7th April 1914].

 

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1914-this-week.php

 

19th March, 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Hamilton County, Florida – Berne Davis, “Fort Myers Arts Matron”. Happy Centenary Ma’am!

http://www.news-press.com/article/20140316/ENT/303160043/Berne-Davis-Centennial-Fort-Myers-arts-matron-celebrates-100th-birthday

World Affairs and global finance: The Anglo-Persian and Royal Dutch Shell oil companies sign an agreement with the Armenian millionaire Calouste Gulbenkian (“Mr five per cent”) who is a major shareholder in the Turkish National Bank (British controlled), in an attempt to secure exclusive oil rights in Mesopotamia (now Iraq).

https://www.e-education.psu.edu/egee120/node/248

Death in Venice:  a ferry boat (vaporetto) carrying around 50 passengers collides with a naval ship because the crew are busy watching the new marvels of a seaplane circling overhead. 14 die in the accident.

http://www.independenttraveler.com/trip-reviews/death-in-venice

Food and agriculture: New Zealand farmer and diarist George Adkin spends a busy day with his raddle.

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/topic/4578

Extreme weather:  Torrential rain hits north London, causing sewers to overflow. Rainwater floods down Highbury Hill pushing mud against the west terrace boundary wall of the Arsenal football club, opened just six months ago. The wall is unable to take the pressure and begins listing in towards the terracing.

http://www.blog.woolwicharsenal.co.uk/archives/5828