11th April 1913 (Friday)

BORN TODAY, in Paris, France – Oleg Cassini (Loiewski), fashion designer who dated Grace Kelly, Betty Grable, Lana Turner and Ursula Andress, and married Gene Tierney, but not necessarily in that order.

World Affairs: Nathaniel Griffith Lerotholi becomes paramount chief of Basutoland (a British Colony – Lesotho since independence in 1966).

Human Rights: The US Postmaster General proposes the segregation of black and white employees in the US postal service, and is unopposed, leading to active segregation of bathrooms and lunchrooms for employees later in the year.

The S.S Sutlej arrives in Fiji carrying 808 indentured Indian labourers destined to work in the plantations.

Women’s Suffrage: A cricket pavilion at the Tunbridge Wells cricket ground in England is burnt to the ground. The suffragettes leave their calling card – including a photograph of Mrs Pankhurst.


Society and Culture: In Marietta, Ohio, US, where martial law is still in place following the recent flooding, colonel John Patterson, President of the National Cash Register Company and a recent visitor as part of the Ohio (flood) relief commission, advocates diverting the Muskingum river to avoid Marietta and reduce the risk of future flooding.

At the old Parliament Building in Budapest, Abdu’l-Bahá, founder of the Baha’i faith, speaks to an audience of over 1000 listeners.

In Clanfield, Oxfordshire, UK, Frederick Whipp, 96 old former agricultural worker,  is buried in the local churchyard. He died recently in the Witney Union  workhouse in Curbridge.

Migration: At Mosman, in Sydney Australia, Gracius Joseph Broinowski dies, aged 76. Born in Poland in 1837 he studied at Munich University before leaving for Australia on a “windjammer” in 1857. He married the daughter of a whaling captain in 1863 and settled in Sydney around 1880, becoming famous for his illustrated works on Australian ornithology.

19th February 1913 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY, at  Nagybocskó, Máramaros County (then in Hungary, but now in North West Romania and Western Ukraine) – Janos Balogh, Szechenyi Prize winning zoologist, ecologist, professor and member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In the following year, Janos’ father was reported missing, presumed dead, after the Battle of Pržemysl (1914), and his mother died in the “spanish” influenza epidemic in 1919.

Suffragettes – in Surrey, England, a house being built for Lloyd George, the Chancellor of the Exchequer is bombed. A motor car (registration “P8487”) is seen leaving (or near?) the scene shortly before the early morning bombing. Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst is later arrested for the offence.

Meanwhile two members of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) – Olive Wharry and Lillian Lenton are arrested today shortly after setting fire to the Tea Pavilion in Kew Gardens (In London).

Society and Culture: In Balmain, New South Wales, Eugenia Falleni (known in later sequence as Eugene Falleni, Harry Crawford and Jean Ford), a female to male transgender woman, marries Annie Birkett, a widow, without disclosing her gender odyssey. In 1920, at Crawford’s trial for Annie’s murder, the so-called “Man-woman case” creates a press frenzy.


28th January 1913 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY in Rastatt, Germany – Franz Gotz, German WW2 Luftwaffe fighter ace, who was awarded the  Iron Cross for extreme bravery in battle.

First Balkan War: The “Young Turks” vote against the surrender of Adrianople and the Aegean Islands, in accordance with the demands of the new leader, Enver Bey.

Empire:  Letsie II Lerotholi, Paramount Chief of the British Crown Colony of Basutoland (now Lesotho), dies, and is succeeded in due course by Nathaniel Griffith Lerotholi.

Arms Race: “HMS E4” – a British E class submarine – is commissioned. She will be attacked by a German airship in 1915 and then sink with the loss of all of her crew after colliding with another (British) submarine in 1916. Raised, repaired and re-commissioned, she will be sold for scrap in 1922.

Society and Culture: The Parramatta High School is established in New South Wales.

Congratulations, Parramatta High School!