29th July 1915 (Thursday)

DIED TODAY: Major-General Henry Newport Charles Heath, son of Major-General Alfred Heath, (Royal Artillery): Heath Jr was born in 1860 and attended Clifton College and Sandhurst Royal Military College before fighting in the Anglo-Egyptian War (1882); taking part in the Anglo-Egyptian expedition to relieve General Gordon at Khartoum (1884-85); fighting in the Second Boer War in South Africa (1899-1902); and leading a command in the first world war before falling ill and dying today, aged 54.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Heath_(British_Army_officer)

 

 

28th May, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: In Cambridge, England – Fred Unwin, local man, brush salesman, milkman, psychiatric nurse and ‘desert rat’ with the Eighth Army. Later, an amateur (Cambridge) community historian. Passed away in December 2014, aged 99. RIP.

http://cambridgehistorian.blogspot.com/2012/07/fred-unwin-pimbo-author.html

Colonial unrest: In Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) against a backdrop of the recent imposition of martial law by the (British) authorities, A Buddhist procession celebrating Vesak Poya Day defies orders to stop drum beating while passing a mosque in Gampola town. Violence follows, including Buddhists attacks on a mosque, and on muslim businesses, escalating to 63 deaths across the island [Lanka Herald website].

http://lankaherald.com/2015/02/01/from-1915-to-independence/

21st April 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: on the island of Sandøy in Norway – Oddmund Myklebust, Norwegian fisherman and politician.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oddmund_Myklebust

Society and culture: Speaking at a reception in Madras in British India [now Chennai in India] Ghandi praises the Madrassis for their fortitude during the long civil disobedience campaign in South Africa:

“It was the Madrassis who of all the Indians were singled out by the great Divinity that rules over us for this great work. Do you know that in the great city of Johannesburg, the Madarasis look on a Madrasis as dishonored if he has not passed through the jails once or twice during this terrible crisis that your countrymen in South Africa went through during these eight long years?”

War!

Western Front: the second Battle of Ypres commences in Belgium.

http://www.worldwar1luton.com/event/second-battle-ypres

26th March, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Brooklyn, NY – Joseph Edward Filipelli, better known as “Flip Phillips” American jazz tenor saxophone and clarinet player.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flip_Phillips

War!

On the “North West Frontier” of the British Raj, the Indian army is defending Miranshah, on the Tochi River in North Waziristan (now part of Pakistan), from a large force of “insurgents” (Lashkars, from Southern Afghanistan).

http://www.kaiserscross.com/304501/455322.html

 

23rd February 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY* in Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York – Walter Shorenstein “San Francisco real estate mogul” [nndb.com]

http://www.nndb.com/people/187/000238470/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Shorenstein

* or perhaps, on Feb 15th?

The perils of modern transport: In Exeter, in England’s west country, the Western Times reports the sad death yesterday of Mr George Creedy, retired policeman, aged 82. Earlier in the month Mr Creedy, who was deaf, had stepped into the path of an oncoming tram in Exeter’s main street.

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

War!

In the Dardanelles: British troops occupy the Greek Island of Lemnos as part of the attempt to capture the Dardanelles and the sea route to Constantinople.

http://www.burnleyinthegreatwar.info/lemnoscemeteries.htm

Colonial tensions: British instructions for the “colonial contingents” (including Australians and New Zealanders) in Egypt include stern advice on dealing with “natives”

“The ill-treatment of natives is a very serious offence, and all cases are to be fully investigated and  reported to Divisional Headquarters before disposal….

“Men should be warned against striking natives, altercations with them should be carefully avoided. They should be particularly warned against donkey boys and dragomen [ie guides and interpreters] as most of these know the english language and are apt to become familiar… They should have as little dealings with natives as possible, whose one idea is to make money out of them.”

https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/RCDIG0000578/?image=1&fullscreen=true

3rd February 1915 (Wednesday)

EXECUTED TODAY:

~ in Sarajevo, then in the condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Austria-Hungarian Empire (now the capital of independent Bosnia Herzegovina) – Danilo Ilic, a member of the “black hand” secret society who recruited Gavrillo Princip, is executed (along with two others) for his part in the assassination of Archduke Franz-Ferdinand in the summer of 1914.

http://real-life-villains.wikia.com/wiki/Danilo_Ili%C4%87

In Malawi, the Reverend John Chilembwe, “freedom fighter”, is shot dead by colonial police forces while allegedly resisting arrest for his part in a recent attack on, and murder of, several European settlers. “Chilembwe led the uprising in early January fighting for freedom from social injustices faced by his countrymen, and was killed at noon [on] 3rd February 1915” [The Maravi Post].

http://www.maravipost.com/201501107938/Society/malawians-and-mutharika-to-honor-john-chilembwe-centenary-celebrations-from-15th-%E2%80%93-17th-jan-2015.html

 

War!

In the Middle East: British and Egyptian troops, including a British naval contingent, defeat the long expected Turkish attack on the Suez Canal. The German advisers to the Turkish forces begin to realise that their hopes of an Islamic uprising against British power in Egypt and India are misplaced, with evidence before and after the attack that the local Arab forces show no particular loyalty or botherhood with their Turkish masters, and that the Egyptian forces will not easily be turned against their colonial masters  [Scott Anderson: “Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East” ].

http://www.1914-1918.net/suez.htm

 

 

23rd January 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in St Lucia, in the British Windward Islands (now a sovereign independent state) – Sir (William) Arthur Lewis, Nobel Prize winner for Economics who specialised in the economics of development.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._Arthur_Lewis

War at Sea:

The German submarine SM-U21 sinks three British merchant vessels in the Irish Sea.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_January_1915

Colonial Unrest:

in Magomero in British Nyasaland (now Malawi), John Chilembwe, a US educated Baptist pastor and educator, and supporter of the new creed of “Ethiopianism”, leads an anti-european attack on the estate of William Jervis Livingstone, himself the son of a Baptist Minister.

William Jervis Livingstone was murdered and beheaded in front of his wife, small daughter Nyasa (5 years old) and infant baby Alastair then only 6 months old; two other European employees were also murdered – Duncan MacCormick from the Isle of Lismore (like William), and Robert Ferguson. Three Africans were also killed by the rebels, and European-run mission was set on fire and a missionary was severely wounded. All the dead and injured were men, as Chilembwe had ordered that women should not be harmed. In wholly unchristian act, on 24 January, a Sunday, Chilembwe conducted a service in the Providence Industrial Mission church next to a pole where Livingstone’s head was impaled – a macabre and gruesome incident in the extreme – especially where a man of the church was instrumental in its implementation” [Wikipedia]

John Chilembwe Day is observed annually on January 15 in Malawi.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Chilembwe

Rural Unrest:

In Hertford, England – Herbert Wright and Samuel Playle are found guilty of poaching on land belonging to Lord Desborough and each fined 10 shillings. An expensive pheasant.

http://www.hertspastpolicing.org.uk/page/poaching_at_panshanger?path=0p2p100p