17th August 1915 (Tuesday)

DIED TODAY: Leo Frank, factory superintendant convicted in 1913 of the murder of an employee, Mary Phagan, aged 13. Sentenced to death by hanging in 1913, later commuted to life imprisonment. Abducted from prison on 16th August 1915, and lynched today, by the “Knights of Mary Phagan”, a vigilante group specifically formed for the abduction and lynching. A superior court judge is photographed among the spectators.

“Leo Frank was posthumously pardoned in 1986 by the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles , which said that it was done without attempting to address the question of guilt or innocence. The consensus of researchers on the subject is that Frank was wrongly convicted”. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Frank

Extreme Weather: Galveston, Texas is rocked by a category 4 hurricane, with winds of 135mph. Port Arthur is flooded.

http://antonk.com/august-in-history/august-17-on-this-day-in-history-2/

http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth221876/

War!

War at Sea: The German submarine U-38 sinks 10 vessels, 9 British and 1 Spanish, in a single day, on its voyage to become the third most successful U-boat of the first world war.

https://www.google.co.uk/?gws_rd=ssl#q=17th+august+1915&start=10

 

12th August 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in South River, New Jersey – Alexander Francis Wojciechowicz, NFL Hall of Famer.

http://www.nndb.com/people/340/000166839/

Urban Life:  in Exeter, England, the Exeter and Plymough Gazette reports that wagonner Arthur Brealy has been fined 7 shillings and sixpence for dangerous driving of his horse and waggon laden with hay (not keeping in to the left side), resulting in a collision with the post-office mail motor van.

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

War!

War from the air: Six civilians die and twenty three are injured in a Zeppelin raid on the town of Woodbridge, near England’s east coast.

http://www.ucs.ac.uk/About/Events/Event-details-page.aspx?id=23807

3rd August 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: Roman Fischer, an Austrian fencer, and  Arthur Birch, an Australian chemist.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Fischer

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Birch_(organic_chemist)

War!

On the Italian Front: After 91,000 casualties the Second Battle of Isonzo on the Italian/ Austrian border (now the Soca valley in north west Slovenia) draws to a close because both sides have run out of ammunition, both for small arms and for artillery. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_the_Isonzo

On the (Belgian) Home Front: British nurse Edith Cavell, who has been based in Brussels for many years, is arrested by the German authorities on suspicion of helping British, French and Belgian soldiers and citizens to escape from German occupied Belgium.

http://primaryfacts.com/2780/edith-cavell-facts-and-information/

26th July 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Nidubrolu in Andhra Pradesh, British India – Pragada Kotaiah, freedom fighter and parliamentarian.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragada_Kotaiah

War!

Socialism in Italy: a “rising star” of the Italian socialist party, one Benito Mussolini, expresses the view that “Italian workers should give ‘not a penny’ to the cause of war, nor spill ‘one drop of blood’ for a cause that had ‘nothing to do with it’. If the government failed to declare neutrality, the proletatriat would force it to do so”. [Mark Thompson: “The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919”].

Fire in Constantinople:  A great fire in Istanbul, later attributed to Russian areoplane bombing, destroys over 3000 buildings.

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=WC19150825.2.49.3

Submarines in the Dardanelles: the French submarine “Mariotte” is sunk by the Ottoman Navy, and its crew taken as prisoners of war.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_July_1915

Discipline on the Western Front: in the largest single judicial execution by the British during the war, 5 members of the 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment are executed on the ramparts of Ypres.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn

21st July 1915 (Wednesday)

Crime and punishment

Less than one year after the start of the war, Private Herbert Burden of the  Northumberland Fusiliers, aged 19, becomes the 41st British solider to be judicially executed.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/2546-21-july-1915-pte-herbert-burden.html

8th July 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Lviv (Lwów”, “Lvov”, or “Lemberg”, depending on your linguistic roots) – the Army of the Bug, known to its friends as the “Armeeoberkommando Bug”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_of_the_Bug

War!

On the British Home Front:

~ At Aldershot, Lance Corporal Benjamin Burnley, a collier from  Pontefract, overstays his authorised leave by 9 hours and 35 minutes, for which he is severely reprimanded and forfeits a day’s pay.

http://www.wakefield.gov.uk/residents/libraries-and-local-history/local-and-family-history/we-will-remember-them/stories/pontefract/benjamin-burnley

~ In the personal column of the London “Times”, Ethel M shames Jack F.G:

“Jack F.G. If you are not in khaki by the 20th I shall cut you dead. Ethel M.”.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/11/first-world-war-white-feather-cowardice

24th June 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY:  in Bingley, West Yorkshire – Sir Fred Hoyle, stellar nucleosynthesist.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fred_Hoyle

http://rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/roybiogmem/49/213

War! 

Western Front: After being missing from his regiment for nearly nine months Corporal Frederick Ives (12295) of the 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment, is arrested today, wearing civilian clothes, by an officer of the Army Veterinary Corps.  Corporal Ives will be court-martialled on 7th July and executed by firing squad with four other deserters on 26th July.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn

4th June, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Bamako, capital of the colony of French Sudan (now Mali) – Modibo Keïta, the first President of independent Mali, 1960-1968.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modibo_Ke%C3%AFta

War!

Gallipoli: At the Third Battle of Krithia, the Allies once again fail to make any significant advance against the Turkish defenders.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Battle_of_Krithia

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/krithia3.htm

On the Western Front: Private Oliver W. Hodgetts (8662) 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment, having recently been found guilty of cowardice, is shot by firing squad at dawn. Private Hodgetts is 20 years old.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn

On the (English) Home Front: in Kent, the Dover Express reports how the local golf club is enjoying great popularity with Military Officers, who are however having to “make do” with girl caddies because so many young men are away fighting the war.

http://catalogue.stmargaretshistory.org.uk/items/show/2064

29th May 1915 (Saturday)

Society and culture: In Central England, a local paper, the Herts Mercury, reports on the trial of a young lady accused of the crime of attempted suicide:

“At Much Hadham Alice Gould (21), a domestic servant, of Little Hadham, was charged with attempting to commit suicide on April 14, by taking spirits of salts, a corrosive poison.  The defendant, who had been arrested that day, looked very ill, and was allowed to be seated in court in charge of Mrs. Lee, acting as wardress.”

After hearing the evidence against the young lady:

The Chairman said any person attempting to take his or her life was liable to serious punishment.  The defendant did not seem to be aware that she would cause herself serious injury.  She had a perfectly good character, good home, and very respectable parents.  The Bench under the circumstances felt justified in dismissing the case, and would appeal to the parents to look after her so that she might recover her health.”

http://www.hertspastpolicing.org.uk/page/attempted_suicide-2?path=0p34p85p

4th May 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Gorzyce in Eastern Prussia (now part of Western Poland) – Florian Marciniak, Polish scoutmaster murdered by the gestapo in 1944, aged 28.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florian_Marciniak

War!

Crime and punishment: 14780 Acting Corporal Chisholm, of the 20th Fortress Company British Royal Engineers, serving on the Western Front, “feloniously, wilfully and of malice aforethought, kill[s] and murder[s] No. 348 Lance-Corporal Robert Lewis, 1st Glamorgan (Fortress) Company, Royal Engineers’, a crime for which he is court-martialled on 10th May and hanged on the 17th May at 6.10AM.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/chisholm.htm