5th November 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: Emmanuel Kiwanuka Nsubuga, Archbishop of Kampala from 1966 to 1990, who spoke out against human rights abuses during the regime of Idi Amin.



Britain declares war on Turkey and immediately annexes Cyprus. France also declares war on Turkey.



In (nominally) Turkish ruled Egypt (actually already a British “protectorate”) British forces depose the Khedive (the Turkish equivalent of a viceroy) – Abbas II Hilmi Bey, who has reigned since 1892.


In London, Selfridges Store is selling puppets of “Guy-ser Bill” to be used as effigies for the English celebration of “Guy Fawkes night”.






16th October 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: In Florence, Italy – Cesar Bresgen – Austro-Hungarian composer and organist.


Arms Race: At Portsmouth, Hampshire the British Royal Navy launches HMS Queen Elizabeth, a “super dreadnought” class battleship, first of a new generation of warships to be fuelled by oil instead of coal, which will mark a turning point in British geo-political strategy as its focus moves from coaling stations (Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus, Aden etc) towards oil producing territory, most especially in Persia.


Labour Relations: In South Africa railway workers and miners go out on strike in support of the Satyagraha campaign for Indian and Tamil rights.


Society and culture:  The Cornell Daily Sun reports a ruling from the Board of Student Representatives of Columbia University rejecting a petition from its journalism students claiming exemptions from its rules for freshers. “Freshmen must conform”. For the disappointed wannabe journalist this means that he will have to…

“wear a small skull cap with a white pearl button all year; he cannot walk on the grass; I he must not have cuffs on his trousers; he may not wear flashy ties or socks and he cannot smoke”


28th March 1913 (Friday)

BORN TODAY, in Elbistan, central southern Turkey – Astrid Aghajanian (born Helen Galdzakian) Armenian survivor of the 1915 genocide. After her father was shot, she and her mother escaped from forced march, were found first by Bedouin tribesmen (who sold them to another) and then saved by a Turkish Officer.

She eventually settled in Shoreham-by Sea (West Sussex) in England, via Aleppo (Syria), British Palestine (1920s), fleeing to Amman in Jordan in 1948, to Cyprus (Kyrenia) but forced to flee again after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974.

She died in Gloucester (UK) in May 2012. “”You may destroy the spider’s home, but he will always build it again.”

Arms Race: The UK House of Commons (the lower house of the Parliament) votes for a major expansion of the British (military) fleet, which is expected to increase by five battleships, eight cruisers and sixteen torpedo boats.

Crime and Punishment: In Carroll Country, Virginia, USA, Floyd Allen and his son Claud are put to death in the electric chair. Floyd was convicted of obstructing justice, after which the judge, the sheriff, the county prosecutor and two other people were murdered in a courthouse shooting which Floyd was found guilty of instigating.

Accidents: At the Pitsea explosive factory in Essex, UK, which produces dynamite and gelignite, three men die and others are injured by an explosion in a guncotton drying stove.

One person dies and 28 are injured after a combination of driver error and inadequate signalling cause a railway accident at Marylebone Station in London.

History of Transport: The Oxford  based Morris car-plant in the UK produces its first ever vehicle: a “Bullnose Morris Oxford”.

Extreme Weather:  On South Island, New Zealand at least 3 people drown in severe flooding in Canterbury, Otago and Southland.