10th September, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in New York City – Edmond O’Brien, actor.

http://www.nndb.com/people/620/000042494/

Local journalism, 100 years ago today:  in England, the Western Times provides its readers with an update:

“Cycle accident     – On enquiry at the Royal Devon and Hospital last evening we were informed that the youth, Albert Madge, who met with a  serious accident on Wednesday through colliding, while cycling, with a taxi-cab in Queen-street, Exeter, had passed  a comfortable day.”

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

War!

Crime and punishment: At the Tower of London, at 6.00AM, Ernst Waldemar Melin, a Swedish national, is executed by firing squad for the crime of spying on behalf of the German government.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/ernst_melin.htm

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7th August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY:

~ In Aachen, Germany – Herman P Schwan,  the “founding father of biomedical engineering“.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_P._Schwan

~ In Brooklyn, New York City – Gary Underhill, a CIA agent who perhaps knew too much for his own good. Found shot dead in May 1964, and officially ruled as a suicide.

http://spartacus-educational.com/JFKunderhillG.htm

War!

Gallipoli: At the small, but disastrous, “Battle of the Nek”, Australian casualties include 234 out of the 300 men of the 8th Light Horse Regiment (154 killed) and 138 out of 300 from the 10th (80 killed).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Nek

23rd June 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Mayfair, London – Robin “Monty” Montgomerie-Charrington, formula 1 racing driver.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Montgomerie-Charrington

War!

The Isonzo Front: The Italian Third Army launches a mjor offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces along a 21 mile front stretching inland from the Adriatic. [Burg & Purcell].

East Africa: After British forces successfully destroy the German wireless station and arsenal at Bukoba, in German East Africa, “Brigadier General James Stewart grants his troops permission to loot Bukoba. The men, joined by their officers, go on a shameless, drunken orgy of vandalism, rape and pillage” [Burg & Purcell]…

…British papers reported the events differently…

As it was not intended to hold Bukoba, the force re-embarked on June 23rd, leaving the town “a sorry sight, and being plundered and looted by the local inhabitants who swarmed in to complete the enemy’s discomfiture”.

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=160859

Spy!  at 6.00AM in the “miniature rifle range” at the Tower of London, German spy Carl Muller is executed by a firing squad of 8 riflemen.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/carl_muller.htm

New Year’s Day, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Medyn, in the Kaluga Oblast in the western Russian Empire – Izaak Fleischfarb, zionist, and later communist, activist. Later better known as Józef “The Butcher” Światło, known for supervising the torture of inmates on behalf of the Ministry of Public Security (sic) in Poland. Later, after defecting to the west, he worked for the CIA and Radio Free Europe. Apparently he died in 1994, although “documents relating to him are still classified in the United States and not available to researchers. [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B3zef_%C5%9Awiat%C5%82o

War!

War at Sea: In the French La Manche/ English Channel, German submarine U24 torpedoes and sinks the British battleship “Formidable” with the loss of 547 seamen. {Burg and Purcell].

Far from the front: In Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia, two men later identified as muslims from British India (now Pakistan) shoot dead four people and wound seven more, before being killed by police and military officers (“The Battle of Broken HIll”). Flying the Ottoman flag, the two former camel-drivers at Broken Hill open fire on a train carrying picnickers celebrating the New Year holiday.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Broken_Hill

Peace:

Railway accident: In Ilford, East of London, two morning passenger trains collide. Ten passengers die, and “upwards of 500 passengers have notified the Company of personal injuries or of shock sustained.”

http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/docsummary.php?docID=313

Dissent: The Herald League Rooms in Buchanan Street, Glasgow, Scotland are the venue today for a meeting of the Glasgow Anarchist Group, an activist group supporting anti-war and anti-conscription policies.

http://sites.scran.ac.uk/redclyde/redclyde/rc001.htm

Oh, Brave, Unhappy, New Year…

6th November 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Furth, in Germany – Alfred Zwiebel, landscape, floral, and still-life painter.

http://www.evi.com/q/facts_about__alfred_zwiebel

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Zwiebel

War!

The famous Tower of London witnesses its first execution for 167 years when the German spy, Carl Hans Lody, is shot at dawn by firing squad. He will be buried in an unmarked grave which will be destroyed by German bombing during the second world war.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Hans_Lody

In the Middle East, Britain’s 6th Indian division begins a major offensive in Turkish Mesopotamia (southern Iraq) designed to protect Britain’s oil interests in Persia (Iran) and to draw Turkish forces away from other theatres of war closer to Europe.

 

30th October 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Lanchester, County Durham, England – John Wilson, inside-right (soccer player) for West Bromwich Albion, Port Vale, Wigan Athletic and Shrewsbury Town.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilson_(footballer,_born_1914)

War!

War at Sea: His Majesty’s Hospital Ship (HMHS) Rohilla stikes a reef off the Yorkshire coast, and sinks with the loss of 86 lives.

http://www.whitbyonline.co.uk/whitbyhistory/searescuesanddisasters.php

Espionage: In London, the court martial of the German spy Carl Hans Lody begins. Lody is “charged with two offences of war treason concerning the two letters he had sent from Edinburgh on 27 September and Dublin on 30 September. In both letters, the charge sheet stated that Lody had sought “to convey to a belligerent enemy of Great Britain, namely Germany” information relating to the UK’s defences and preparations for war.” [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Hans_Lody

 

 

22nd August 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in London – Trevor Pryce Leggett, judo teacher, author, translator, diplomat, war time internee, spy, Buddhist, 6th dan, Head of the BBC’s Japanese service for 24 years, Order of the Sacred Treasure and much, much more. [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trevor_Leggett

War!

! Austria-Hungary declares was on Belgium!

In St Petersburg, the imperial Russian government prohibits the sale of alcohol for the duration of the war!

In Le Havre, an anonymous British nursing sister, waiting with her colleagues to be moved nearer to the front, describes the day in Le Havre with almost school-girl excitement:

“There is any amount to see – miles of our [ie British forces] transport going through the town with burly old shaggy english farm-horses, taken straight from the harvest, pulling the carts; French Artillery Reservists being taught to work the guns; French soldiers passing through; and our R.E. [Royal Engineers] motor-cyclists scudding about. And one can practise talking, understanding and reading French.” [Anon: “Diary of a Nursing sister on the Western Front, 1914-1915”].

On this one day, 22nd August 1914, around 27,000 French soldiers die during the confusion of the Battles of Ardennes and Charleroi, both battles being just parts of the larger “Battle of the Frontiers”.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/heavy-casualties-suffered-in-the-battles-of-the-frontiers

The view of the war from (Nationalist) Ireland: Meanwhile, writing under the headline “On German Militarism” the “Irish worker” newspaper shares its views:

Finally, as a word of warning. Do not let anyone play upon your sympathies by denunciation of the German military bullies. German military bullies, like all tyrannies among civilised people need fear nothing so much as native (German) democracy. Attacks from outside only strengthen tyrants within a nation. If we had to choose between strengthening the German bully or the Russian autocrat the wise choice would be on the side of the German. For the German people are a highly civilised people, responsive to every progressive influence, and rapidly forging weapons for their own emancipation from native tyranny, whereas the Russian Empire stretches away into the depths of Asia, and relies on an army largely recruited from amongst many millions of barbarians who have not yet felt the first softening influence of civilisation. German thought is abreast of the best in the world; German influences have shaped for good the hopes of the world, but the thought and the hopes of the best in Russia was but the other day drowned in blood by Russia’s worst.

To help Britain is to help Russia to the dominance of Europe, to help the barbarian to crush the scientist. That is the reflection of the wise revolutionist of today.

Meanwhile the Orange enemy of Irish freedom wisely stays at home and conserves his forces, and the Irish Nationalist is encouraged by his leaders to rush abroad and shed his blood in a quarrel not his own, the simplest elements of which he does not understand.”

https://www.marxists.org/archive/connolly/1914/08/germmili.htm