22nd June 1915 (Tuesday)

EXPLORATION: Members of Ernest Shackleton’s Antarctic expedition celebrate mid-winter with a dinner on board HMS Endurance.

http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/midwinter-dinner-on-the-endurance-22nd-june-1915-during-the-news-photo/480802147

DIED TODAY: at  Bukovina (now split between Romania and Ukraine) – Ferenc Istvan Dénes Gyula Békássy, Cambridge graduate, Hungarian bi-lingual poet and Imperial Hussar. Killed in action, aged 22.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferenc_B%C3%A9k%C3%A1ssy

War!

Eastern Front: Austro-Hungarian forces recapture the city of Lemberg (Lwow/ Lviv) from the Russians.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1915/06/austro-hungarian-forces-recapture-the-city-of-lemberg-lvov-from-the-russians/

Africa: On the shores of Lake Victoria in German East Africa, the British 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers and others have launched an amphibious attack on Bukoba (“The Battle of Bukoba”) with the objective to destroy the German wireless station.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bukoba

19th January 1915 (Tuesday)

Endurance

In Antarctica, the three masted ship “Endurance” which is carrying the Imperial Trans-Antarctic expedition becomes trapped in pack-ice in the Weddell Sea, where she will remain until October when the Antarctic spring changes to the ice-pack break her hull, forcing complete abandonment.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endurance_%281912_ship%29

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/animations/shackleton/index_embed.shtml

Indulgence

In the US, the American Film Manufacturing Company releases W W Young’s film version of Lewis Carroll’s “Alice in Wonderland”, starring Viola Savoy as Alice.

 

12th January 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Boston, Massachusetts – Richard Evans Schultes, the “father of modern ethnobotany” and co-author of “The Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers” (1979). [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Evans_Schultes

Peace

Addiction: The R.J Reynolds tobacco company advertises its “Camel” brand in the New York Times: “You can’t buy a more delightful cigarette than Camels at any price”.

Women’s suffrage: The US House of Representatives votes, 204-174, to reject a constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote.

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/12/jan-12-1915-congress-votes-against-womens-suffrage-amendment/?_r=0

Exploration: In Antarctica, explorer Ernest Shackleton and his team spend part of their day photographing young empire penguins…

http://www.gettyimages.ae/detail/news-photo/young-emperor-penguin-chicks-12th-january-1915-during-the-news-photo/480801623

A farmer’s life: in New Zealand, sheep farmer George Adkin fills his day with raddle and “matted, yellow, broken fleeces”, and fills his mind with dreams of his beloved fiance, Maud.

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Topic/4878

Meanwhile – on a dairy farm in Kent, Connecticut, farmer’s daughter Lucy Seger records her routine today:

“30 [fahrenheit] above. Cold rain. It rained all day. I did housework same as usual. Made a cake. Nellie came down after milk. I cleaned house in morning and mother finished it in afternoon. She finished her ironing also. After dinner I went to Kent after children. I went to Watson’s and bought some outing flannel and apron gingham, twenty five cent of Xmas cards.”

http://www.onsegermountain.org/seger/

 

5th December 1914 (Saturday)

BORN  TODAY: in Paris, France – Odette Joyeux, “actress, playwright and novelist” [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odette_Joyeux

Exploration: In South Georgia, in the South Atlantic, Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition departs Grytviken whaling station, aboard the Endurance, in a bid to cross Antarctica from the Weddell Sea coast to the Ross Sea coast.

http://www.auroraexpeditions.com.au/shackleton-timeline

 

24th November 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Lushnjë, Albania – Fahredin Nuri, hydraulic engineer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fahredin_Nuri

~ in London – Lynn Russell Chadwick, architect turned semi-abstract sculptor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynn_Chadwick

Exploration

Ernest Shackleton’s antarctic expedition photographs the Head of Moraine Fjord, South Georgia, in a silver bromide print which will later be presented to Britain’s King George V,

http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/2580048/head-of-moraine-fjord-south-georgia

6th October 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Larvik, Norway – Thor Heyerdahl, wannabe Viking turned anthropo-mariner.

Ultimately his interest in the legends and pictographs of curved reed or wooden boats led him to Azerbaijan, a Caucasus nation sandwiched between Russia to the North and Turkey and Iran in the south. There the 5,000 year old pictographs of crafts, reminiscent of ancient Viking ships, seemed to support Heyerdahl’s belief that significant sea travel, and long distance river travel, had been going on much earlier than most historians believed and in fairly “primitive” yet high effective craft — craft that decayed leaving little trace of existence or construction. While many historians believed that significant boat travel occurred only after the rise of large civilizations, Heyerdahl was certain that travel by boat created trade and cultural exchange and thus spurred the growth of the great civilizations. Thus, he claimed, boat travel was a leading cause of civilization, not merely one of its products. But the similarity between the pictographs and the ships of his Heyerdahl’s Norwegian ancestors had significance. They reminded him of ancient legends which claimed that his people had originally come from the land of Aser, east of the Black Sea.” [nndb.com]

http://www.nndb.com/people/752/000026674/

War!

Belgium: As the Belgian army begins to withdraw from Antwerp, the govenrment moves to Ostend, and nearly a quarter of a million residents flee towards France and the Netherlands. [Burg and Purcell]. 

Today a new British Army Division – the 7th – also lands at Zeebrugge, but is too little, too late, to save Antwerp from the Germans. [Peter Chasseaud “Mapping the First World War”]

Society and Culture: On a Royal train in a pine forest somewhere in Russia, British Major General Sir John Hanbury-Williams KCB, KCVO, CMG, dines with The Russian Emperor Tsar Nicholas II, and is “at once struck by his extraordinary likeness to our own King” (King George V of the United Kingdom and British Dominions and Emperor of India ~ his cousin).

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/hanbury/1914.html

 

8th August 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: In London, England – Unity Valkyrie Mitford, “an aristocratic English socialite who was a devotee of Adolf Hitler”.  [Wikipedia]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unity_Mitford

War!

Across Western Europe: Many thousands of the figthing men of many nations are converging on Belgium, Luxembourg and the Rhine…

In Eastern Europe: German soldiers are also pressing East through Poland, as Russian men move West…

In German East Africa: The British cruiser “Astraea” arrives off the coast and begins to shell Dar Es Salaam, landing a few troops for good measure. The ship’s captain and the local German authorities agree a truce, but neither of their Imperial masters are happy with the arrangement [Burg and Purcell: “Almanac of World War 1“].

In Britain, Parliament hastily introduces DORA – the Defence of the Realm Act, giving sweeping authoritarian powers to the Government:

”  ‘No person shall by word of mouth or in writing spread reports likely to cause disaffection or alarm among any of His Majesty’s forces or among the civilian population’.  The trivial peacetime activities no longer permitted included flying kites, starting bonfires, buying binoculars, feeding wild animals bread, discussing naval and military matters or buying alcohol on public transport. Alcoholic beverages were watered down and pub opening times were restricted to noon–3pm and 6:30pm–9:30pm (the requirement for an afternoon gap in permitted hours lasted in England until 1988).”  [quoted on Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defence_of_the_Realm_Act_1914

In British India: The first Indian troops involved in World War 1 leave India headed for Egypt, where the plan is to hold them in reserve (for example if more British troops are required in Europe). The reality will be different: they will join the Allied forces fighting on the Western Front.

http://www.black-history.org.uk/pavilionindian.asp

Peace:

Exploration: Sir Ernest Shackelton’s “Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914–17)”, also known as the “Endurance Expedition” leaves Plymouth, England, bound for Argentina, and ultimately for the Antarctic. The ship, “Endurance” , leaves without Sir Ernest, who is detained on expedition business but will join the expedition in Buenos Aires.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Trans-Antarctic_Expedition