17th August 1915 (Tuesday)

DIED TODAY: Leo Frank, factory superintendant convicted in 1913 of the murder of an employee, Mary Phagan, aged 13. Sentenced to death by hanging in 1913, later commuted to life imprisonment. Abducted from prison on 16th August 1915, and lynched today, by the “Knights of Mary Phagan”, a vigilante group specifically formed for the abduction and lynching. A superior court judge is photographed among the spectators.

“Leo Frank was posthumously pardoned in 1986 by the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles , which said that it was done without attempting to address the question of guilt or innocence. The consensus of researchers on the subject is that Frank was wrongly convicted”. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Frank

Extreme Weather: Galveston, Texas is rocked by a category 4 hurricane, with winds of 135mph. Port Arthur is flooded.

http://antonk.com/august-in-history/august-17-on-this-day-in-history-2/

http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth221876/

War!

War at Sea: The German submarine U-38 sinks 10 vessels, 9 British and 1 Spanish, in a single day, on its voyage to become the third most successful U-boat of the first world war.

https://www.google.co.uk/?gws_rd=ssl#q=17th+august+1915&start=10

 

7th July 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Birmingham, Alabama – Margaret Abigail Walker, novelist and poet.

http://www.nndb.com/people/832/000114490/

Extreme Weather: A violent storm kills at least 38 people in Cincinatti, Ohio. “An uncertain number of people drowned in overturned boats in the Ohio River.”

http://ohsweb.ohiohistory.org/swio/pages/content/1915_winds.htm

War!

On the Southern Front: The first battle of the Isonzo, between Italian and Austro-Hungarian forces, draws to a close after two weeks.

“The first battle of the Isonzo cost the Italians 14,947 casualties, including 1,500 men taken prisoner. The Austrians lost 9,948 men, a higher proportion of their army on the Isonzo, but not enough to win the Italians a breakthrough. The search for that breakthrough would result in ten more Italian attacks on the Isonzo, none of which would achieve the decisive breakthrough.” [www.historyofwar.org]

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_isonzo1.html

13th January 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Johnstown, Cambria County, Pennsylvania – Dominec Petrore, son of Italian immigrants: Peter Petroro, born 1884 in Abruzzo, and Antonia Saia Petroro, born in Italy in 1886. 

http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=93852343

Earthquake: In central Italy, near the city of Aquila, a major earthquake sends tremors as far as Rome. Near the epicentre, especially at the town of Avezzano, around 30,000 people perish.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1915_Avezzano_earthquake

Extreme Weather: In Naples harbour, the cargo ship “Amalia Scotto” is driven against the quayside and sunk by a gale.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_January_1915

6th January 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Chiselhurst, Kent – Alan Wilson Watts, “Zen beat counterculture sage” [nndb.com], or “British-born philosopher, writer, and speaker, best known as an interpreter and populariser of Eastern philosophy for a Western audience” [Wikipedia].

http://www.nndb.com/people/445/000161959/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Watts

Peace:

Extreme weather: Parts of southern and western England are experiencing significant flooding, including historic Salisbury Cathedral.

http://salisburyandstonehenge.net/on-this-day/january/6th-january-1915-salisbury-cathedral-is-flooded

 

19th July 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Charleroi, Belgium – René Pedroli, Swiss professional road bicycle racer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Pedroli

World Affairs: In Vienna, the Austro-Hungarian council of ministers approves the final draft of the ultimatum to Serbia, but delays sending it because the French President is currently on a state visit to its ally, Russia.

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/timeline/ww1-events-1914.htm

Migration: In Vancouver harbour, Indian migrants who have been detained on the SS Komataga and denied permission to disemabark for nearly two months take control of the engine room to prevent the vessel from leaving.  A battle ensues when armed police arrive on a tugboat and turn the hoses on the migrant ship.

http://pasttensevancouver.tumblr.com/post/23627708172/komagatamaru1914

Extreme Weather: Istanbul is hit by a freak tornado which causes loss of life, destruction of property and crops and is followed by lightning strikes with more casualties including the death of a group sheltering under a tree.

Click to access Onder_Kocaturk-The_Great_Storm_and_Tornado_Incident_in_Istanbul.pdf

21st June 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Victoria, British Columbia – Wiliam Spencer Vickrey, post Keynesian economist and Nobel Laureate.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Vickrey

World Affairs: Serbian diplomat Jovan Jovanovic warns Leon Bilinski, the Austrian finance minister, that there may be an assassination plot against Archduke Franz Ferdinand when he visits Sarajevo next week. His warning is ignored.

http://www.wonderpediamagazine.co.uk/history/could-ww1-have-been-avoided

Extreme Weather: the city of Termez in Central Asia (previously belonging to the Emirate of Bukhara, at this time part of Imperial Russia, later in the Soviet Union, and now the most Southern point in Uzbekistan)  experiences the hottest temperature ever recorded in Uzbekistan – 49.6 celsius.

http://www.dfa.gov.za/foreign/bilateral/uzbekistan.html

Sport: In Buenos Aires – England’s Exeter City football club beat a team representing Southern Argentina 3-0.

http://ecfcst.org.uk/2014/05/29/exeter-city-v-argentina-sud-limited-edition-replica-programme/

 

14th June 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Korostienie in the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, Imperial Russia – Piotr Kozachenko, graduate of the Odessa Military Air College (1936) who fought with the Chinese forces against the Japanese in 1937 and for the Soviet Union against Finland in the Winter War in 1939-1940. On the first day of the Great Patriotic War against Germany (in 1941) he claimed his first successes against German aircraft, and in 1942 was fighting on the North Caucasus front. After receiving the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin in May 1943 he began operating over the Crimea area on the 2nd Ukrainian Front. He died during a mission over Danzig, Germany (now Gdansk in Poland) in March 1945, aged 30.

http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/soviet_kozachenko.htm

~ in Nagutskaya, in the Caucasus region of  Imperial Russia, Yuri Andropov: orphan; loader; telegraph clerk; sailor on the Volga; young communist; local and then national activist; Soviet Ambassador to Budapest during the Hungarian uprising; Chairman of the KGB; Politburo member; interrogator; invader of Afghanistan; and General Secretaty of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. {Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Andropov

World Affairs: Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who has been taking a holiday in Russian Crimea, visits the Romanian King, by sea, in Constanta, Romania, along with the Russian foreign Minister, Sazonov. On the agenda is the tenuous balance of power in the Balkan’s in recent years, where  Ottomans, Habsurgs, Russians and Italians have been vying for position.

Click to access ROMANIA-AND-THE-TRIPLE-ENTENTE.pdf

Extreme Weather: In South West London, England a freak thunderstorm causes death and flooding. Among the dead are three young children sheltering under a lightning struck tree in an area known as “The Frying Pan” on Wandsworth Common.

http://www.ukweatherworld.co.uk/forum/index.php?/topic/44568-blood-red-tempest-south-london-sunday-14th-june-1914/

Arts and Literature: Publisher A.C MClurg of Chicago publishes the first book edition of Edgar Rice Burrough’s “Tarzan of the Apes”

http://www.abebooks.com/book-search/title/tarzan-apes/author/edgar-rice-burroughs/publisher/1914/first-edition/sortby/1/

1st April 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: On the island of Java, in Indonesia – the city of Malang, “a trade centre of agricultural area in which sugar, rice, coffee, tea, corn, peanuts, cassava, and cinchona bark are grown”. Happy Centenary, Malang!

http://www.eastjava.com/tourism/malang/citytour/about-us.html

Society and culture: In the village of Burston, near Diss, in rural Norfolk, England, schoolchildren, supported by their parents, begin what will become (allegedly) the longest strike in history, in protest at the dismissal of their teacher.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/dna/place-lancashire/plain/A6017456

Extreme Weather: In Massachusetts, it rains molasses. (well, it is April 1st, after all).

http://www.dailypress.com/news/dp-nws-molasses-pic,0,6074134.photo

 

20th March 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Medindie, Adelaide, South Australia – Thomas Currie ‘Diver’ Derrick, posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for bravery against Japanese forces at Sattelburg ridge on the Huon Peninsula, New Guinea in 1943.

http://www.sahistorians.org.au/175/chronology/march/20-march-1914-thomas-diver-derrick-vc.shtml

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sattelberg

Ireland: In Curragh, County Kildare, where the British Army has its main base in Ireland, many army officers threaten to resign their posts rather than obey possible imminent orders from the government in London for them to take action against the rebellious paramilitary Ulster Volunteers (the Curragh “incident” or “mutiny”).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curragh_incident

Sport: the Directors of the Arsenal football (soccer) club in London are forced to temporarily close the ground after torrential rain reveals structural problems at the new Highbury ground.

http://www.blog.woolwicharsenal.co.uk/archives/5828

19th March, 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Hamilton County, Florida – Berne Davis, “Fort Myers Arts Matron”. Happy Centenary Ma’am!

http://www.news-press.com/article/20140316/ENT/303160043/Berne-Davis-Centennial-Fort-Myers-arts-matron-celebrates-100th-birthday

World Affairs and global finance: The Anglo-Persian and Royal Dutch Shell oil companies sign an agreement with the Armenian millionaire Calouste Gulbenkian (“Mr five per cent”) who is a major shareholder in the Turkish National Bank (British controlled), in an attempt to secure exclusive oil rights in Mesopotamia (now Iraq).

https://www.e-education.psu.edu/egee120/node/248

Death in Venice:  a ferry boat (vaporetto) carrying around 50 passengers collides with a naval ship because the crew are busy watching the new marvels of a seaplane circling overhead. 14 die in the accident.

http://www.independenttraveler.com/trip-reviews/death-in-venice

Food and agriculture: New Zealand farmer and diarist George Adkin spends a busy day with his raddle.

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/topic/4578

Extreme weather:  Torrential rain hits north London, causing sewers to overflow. Rainwater floods down Highbury Hill pushing mud against the west terrace boundary wall of the Arsenal football club, opened just six months ago. The wall is unable to take the pressure and begins listing in towards the terracing.

http://www.blog.woolwicharsenal.co.uk/archives/5828