31st May 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Canberra – Judith Wright, poet, environmentalist and campaigner for aboriginal land rights.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_Wright

War!

In Turkish Mesopotamia (now Iraq, allegedly) – British and Indian troops are pushing back the Turks as the Allied forces advance northward in an amphibious operation on the River Tigris. [Burg & Purcell]

On the Austrian Isonzo river in the Julian alps (now the Soca River in Slovenia), Italian forces are attempting to push back Austrian troops and to advance eastward into the province of Carnolia (northern Slovenia). [Burg & Purcell]

15th May 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in London – Hilda Schwarz (later Bernstein), journalist, author, artist, activist, communist and exile.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_Bernstein

War!

The Dardanelles: Senior British Admiral Sir John Fisher resigns in protest at what he perceives to be Churchill’s misplaced obsession with forcing the Dardanelles, a strategy which has so far yielded nothing but many thousands of deaths [Burg & Purcell].

The Western Front: After a 60 hour bombardment by 433 artillery pieces   firing about 100,000 shells, British General Sir Douglas Haig launches his British, Indian and Canadian  army against the German defences on the first day of the Battle of Festubert.  After 10 days and over 20,000 casualities the Allies will have gained approximately 3 kilometres. Overall losses for the Second Battle of Artois (of which this forms part) are in the order of 200,000 German, French, British, Indian and Canadian men, including over 100,000 Frenchmen [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Festubert

Revolution!

The Reuters News Agency files unconfirmed reports (from the Spanish government) of a revolutionary coup in Portugal, where all communications (railway, telegraph etc) have been cut and there are (unfounded) rumours that the ex-Premier, Afonso Costa, has been assassinated.

http://www.cphrc.org/index.php/documents/firstrepublic/475-1915-05-15-commune-in-portugal

5th November 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: Emmanuel Kiwanuka Nsubuga, Archbishop of Kampala from 1966 to 1990, who spoke out against human rights abuses during the regime of Idi Amin.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmanuel_Nsubuga

War!

Britain declares war on Turkey and immediately annexes Cyprus. France also declares war on Turkey.

http://www.eugreeka.com/the-annexation-of-cyprus-by-the-united-kingdom-on-5th-november-1914-an-enduring-turning-point

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Force_in_Egypt

In (nominally) Turkish ruled Egypt (actually already a British “protectorate”) British forces depose the Khedive (the Turkish equivalent of a viceroy) – Abbas II Hilmi Bey, who has reigned since 1892.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_Kamel_of_Egypt

In London, Selfridges Store is selling puppets of “Guy-ser Bill” to be used as effigies for the English celebration of “Guy Fawkes night”.

http://blog.maryevans.com/2013/11/guy-ser-bill-remember-remember-the-fifth-of-november-.html

 

 

 

 

6th July, 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Halifax Nova Scotia – Viola Davis (later Desmond), Canadian black activist  wrongly convicted for tax evasion as a result of a protest over segregation in a New Glasgow theatre, and pardoned posthumously, in 2010, forty five years after her death [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_Desmond

World Affairs: In St Petersburg, the Russian government warns Austria not to make unreasonable demands of the Serbians in response to their alleged involvement in the Archduke’s assassination.

Society and Culture: In Kiel, Germany, where the German and British navies have been jointly celebrating “Kiel Week” together, the Kaiser sets off on his annual holiday cruise, heading for Norway. {Almanac of World War 1].

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Almanac-World-War-David-Burg-ebook/dp/B0078XFMK0/ref=sr_1_2?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1403113654&sr=1-2&keywords=almanac+of+world+war+1

 

17th June 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Tientsin, China – to missionary parents – John Hersey, journalist, author, lecturer and professor.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-john-hersey-1500188.html

Society and Culture:

~ Mary Dorothy Lyndon of Athens, Georgia, becomes the first woman ever to be awarded a degree by the Univeristy of Georgia.

http://accheritage.blogspot.com/2010/06/17-june-1914-athenian-is-first-woman-to.html

~ In London, 26 year old Marcus Mosiah Garvey boards the steamship “Trent” to return home to Jamaica after two years studying law and philosophy at London’s Birkbeck College, and working for the “African Times and Orient Review.”  [Wikipedia}   ” I read ‘Up From Slavery’ and then my doom – if I may so call it – of being a race leader dawned on me”. [Barbados Underground].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Garvey

https://barbadosunderground.wordpress.com/tag/marcus-garvey/

Sport: In England, the Western Times newspaper reports that the Exeter City football (soccer) team have played their first match (a few days ago) in a tour of South America, against a team representing North Argentina. The final score is reported at 1-0, but the cablegram received is unclear about which team was victorious.

“The cablegram received by Mr. Sid Thomas, the Secretary of the club yesterday, gives the score 1-0. According to the usual rule of the home teams score coming first, North Argentina won. On the other hand it is argued that the message means that the City were victorious. Supporters will have to possess themselves in patience.” [Western Times – Wednesday 17 June 1914]

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/

 

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/

22nd February 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: 

~ in Catanzaro, in Italy’s deep south – Renato Dulbecco, virologist, Italian world war 2 conscript, emigrant to the USA, and Nobel Prize winner.

~ in Padua, in Italy’s far north – Otello Toso, Italian film and stage actor who died in a car accident, aged 52.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renato_Dulbecco

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otello_Toso

Human Rights: On her sixteenth birthday, Thillaiyadi Valliammai, a South African Tamil woman who has just served three months hard labor in Maritzburg prison for her small part in the Satyagraha protest movement led by Mahatma Ghandi, dies from an illness contracted during her imprisonment.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thillaiaadi_Valliammai

Accidents: At the beach at Manley in New South Wales, 16 year old William Overton and 14 year old Ronald Starkey are swept out to sea while swimming, and are drowned.

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/92045129

27th November 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in New York City – Walter Benjamin Garland, Brooklyn college mathematics student, communist party and National Negro Congress activist, volunteer fighter with the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War. US Army volunteer in World War 2 whose request to serve overseas was denied. Post war activist against discrimination and police brutality, co-founder of the United Negro Allied Veterans Association.

https://onehundredyearsagotoday.wordpress.com/wp-admin/post.php?post=4914&action=edit&message=10

Crime and punishment: At Pentonville Prison, in London, England – Frederick Robertson is hanged by the neck for the double murder of his relatives – Nellie and Beatrice Robertson.

http://eotd.wordpress.com/2008/11/27/27-november-1913-frederick-robertson%C2%A0/

Transport and gallantry: In the village of Liss in Hampshire, England, Percy Norwood sustains serious head injuries while rescuing blacksmith Harry Rasell from the path of an oncoming train. Harry’s pony had bolted, crashing into the crossing gates and throwing him onto the rails ahead of the train.

http://www.dmm.org.uk/galantry/z179.htm

Thanksgiving: In the US State of New Mexico, Governor William C McDonald proclaims this Thursday, the fourth Thursday in  November, as a day of thanksgiving:  “I urge upon all that this day be observed as one of prayer and praise to God for the many blessings enjoyed by our people. At the same time may we not forget the poor and needy, making the day what its name implies for all”.

http://www.newmexicohistory.org/centennial/Governor.html

Journalism, society and culture: The National Geographic magazine publishes an article with ethnographic plates entitled “The Non-Christian Peoples of the Philippine Islands”.

http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/photography_and_power_02/gallery_02/index.htm