6th August, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Budapest in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now the capital of Hungary) to American heiress Gladys Virginia Steuart and her husband, Count Gyula Apponyi de Nagy Appony – “The “White Rose of Hungary”, Countess Géraldine Margit Virginia Olga Mária Apponyi de Nagy-Appony, who worked as a shorthand typist and shop assistant, and later as Queen Geraldine of the Albanians, the Queen Consort of King Zog I, who reigned from 1928 to 1939.

After more than 60 years of wandering refugee life (including spells at the Ritz and at Ascot), Geraldine was permitted to return to communist Albania in 2002, where she died 5 months later in a military hospital, still insisting that her son, Leka Zogu, was the legitimate King of the Albanians. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geraldine_of_Albania

22nd June 1915 (Tuesday)

EXPLORATION: Members of Ernest Shackleton’s Antarctic expedition celebrate mid-winter with a dinner on board HMS Endurance.

http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/midwinter-dinner-on-the-endurance-22nd-june-1915-during-the-news-photo/480802147

DIED TODAY: at  Bukovina (now split between Romania and Ukraine) – Ferenc Istvan Dénes Gyula Békássy, Cambridge graduate, Hungarian bi-lingual poet and Imperial Hussar. Killed in action, aged 22.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferenc_B%C3%A9k%C3%A1ssy

War!

Eastern Front: Austro-Hungarian forces recapture the city of Lemberg (Lwow/ Lviv) from the Russians.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1915/06/austro-hungarian-forces-recapture-the-city-of-lemberg-lvov-from-the-russians/

Africa: On the shores of Lake Victoria in German East Africa, the British 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers and others have launched an amphibious attack on Bukoba (“The Battle of Bukoba”) with the objective to destroy the German wireless station.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bukoba

25th March, 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY:

Tsutomu Sekido, Japanese skier at the 1936  Winter Olympics in Bavaria.

Béla Háray, Hungarian ice-hockey and hockey player at the 1936 Winter Olympics in Bavaria and the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin.

1936 was the last year when both Winter and Summer Olympics were held in the same country.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsutomu_Sekido

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B%C3%A9la_H%C3%A1ray

Accidents: Off Honolulu in Hawaii, the US Submarine F-4 sinks while on maneuvres with the loss of its crew of 21 sub-mariners, the first loss of a US submarine while at sea.

http://ussnautilus.org/blog/the-loss-of-uss-f-4-ss-23/

17th July 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Budapest – Klari Tolnay, over a career spanning 64 years, “a prominent and universally acclaimed actor, erecting a monumental oeuvre both on stage and on film” [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kl%C3%A1ri_Tolnay

Crime: In Boksburg, South Africa, one man is shot dead and another crippled for life when they interrupt a bank robbery by the “infamous” foster gang.

http://boksburghistorical.com/index_files/Page381.htm

5th July 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Denmark – Gerda Gilboe, actress daughter of a blacksmith father.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerda_Gilboe

~ In Budapest – Annie Fischer, child prodigy pianist.

Click to access FischerEN.pdf

World Affairs: The German Emperor issues the infamous “blank cheque”, promising his full support for Austria in its efforts to punish and diminish Serbia, whatever the wider complications it might cause across Europe. He urges Austria to “march at once” and expresses confidence that Russia was not ready to go to war.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/germany-gives-austria-hungary-blank-check-assurance

Tourism: Middle aged American tourist Rachel Halsey is spending a day and a half  in Venice:

“In the evening, we took a most beautiful gondola ride. The gondolas are very comfortable and the easy way the gondoliers stand and row with one oar is remarkable. Many of the private gondolas are beautiful. Our gondolier sang selections from operas for us. It seemed strange that anyone in such a lowly position should know operas instead of ragtime. The music gondolas decorated with lanterns were numerous and voices good. To lend to the enchantment, the full moon was shining down in all its splendor.

The shops were perfectly entrancing, and before you knew it you could hear yourself saying – I’ll take this, I’ll take that – corals – Roman pearls, scarfs, beads, pictures, Venetian glass, laces etc. Heard a concert in the square the second night. Have forgotten our trip to Lido the little summer resort – about 20 minutes ride from Venice – very pleasant, but not especially interesting. Still water bathing – some of the girls had on men’s bathing suits – no shoes or stockings. Very warm weather and fleas, fleas, fleas! Scratch scratch!” 

http://www.igrin.co.nz/penh/journal.html

14th June 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Korostienie in the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, Imperial Russia – Piotr Kozachenko, graduate of the Odessa Military Air College (1936) who fought with the Chinese forces against the Japanese in 1937 and for the Soviet Union against Finland in the Winter War in 1939-1940. On the first day of the Great Patriotic War against Germany (in 1941) he claimed his first successes against German aircraft, and in 1942 was fighting on the North Caucasus front. After receiving the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin in May 1943 he began operating over the Crimea area on the 2nd Ukrainian Front. He died during a mission over Danzig, Germany (now Gdansk in Poland) in March 1945, aged 30.

http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/soviet_kozachenko.htm

~ in Nagutskaya, in the Caucasus region of  Imperial Russia, Yuri Andropov: orphan; loader; telegraph clerk; sailor on the Volga; young communist; local and then national activist; Soviet Ambassador to Budapest during the Hungarian uprising; Chairman of the KGB; Politburo member; interrogator; invader of Afghanistan; and General Secretaty of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. {Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Andropov

World Affairs: Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who has been taking a holiday in Russian Crimea, visits the Romanian King, by sea, in Constanta, Romania, along with the Russian foreign Minister, Sazonov. On the agenda is the tenuous balance of power in the Balkan’s in recent years, where  Ottomans, Habsurgs, Russians and Italians have been vying for position.

Click to access ROMANIA-AND-THE-TRIPLE-ENTENTE.pdf

Extreme Weather: In South West London, England a freak thunderstorm causes death and flooding. Among the dead are three young children sheltering under a lightning struck tree in an area known as “The Frying Pan” on Wandsworth Common.

http://www.ukweatherworld.co.uk/forum/index.php?/topic/44568-blood-red-tempest-south-london-sunday-14th-june-1914/

Arts and Literature: Publisher A.C MClurg of Chicago publishes the first book edition of Edgar Rice Burrough’s “Tarzan of the Apes”

http://www.abebooks.com/book-search/title/tarzan-apes/author/edgar-rice-burroughs/publisher/1914/first-edition/sortby/1/

19th November 1913 (Wednesday)

OLYMPIANS BORN TODAY:

~ In Vicenza, Italy – Gianni Caldana, athlete

~ In Pavia, Italy – Germana Malabarba, gymnast

~ In Argentina, South America – Jorge Emilio  Brauer – sailor

~ In Budapest, Austria-Hungary – Ferenc Cziraki – handball player

~ In London, England – Alfred Skrobisch, fencer

http://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/friv/birthdays.cgi?month=11&day=19

18th November 1913 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Mohacs, Austria-Hungary, on the right bank of the Danube – Endre Rozsda, Hungarian-French painter. Settled in Paris in 1938 but forced to return to Hungary (Budapest) when the Germans occupied Paris. Fled (back to Paris) from communist repression in Hungary in 1956, and finally became a French citizen in 1970.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endre_Rozsda

World Affairs: In Mexico City, the correspondent of the London Times, offers his views on the current state of the revolution, which has been dragging on for three years:

“A sinister impression is abroad that the Federal officers are not trying to suppress the revolution, and that civil war drags on because it is profitable. The root evil in Mexico is official corruption: no ignominy attaches to it, because no official is expected to be anything but corrupt.” [The Spectator]

http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/13th-december-1913/2/the-times-correspondent-writing-from-mexico-city-o

28th June 1913 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Byton, Kujawsko-Pomorskie, in the Province of Wloclawek (Poland) – Leon Nowakowski, Priest of the diocese of Wloclawek. Killed by the nazis in October 1939 (aged 26).

Also: in Nowy Sącz (then in Austria-Hungarian Galicia, soon to be annexed by Russia, then occupied by Germany [WW1], briefly claimed by Ukraine, then part of Poland, before being re-occupied by Germany [WW2] and finally (?) settling in Poland, just north of the Slovakian border) – Efraim Racker, “Austrian” biochemist who grew up in Vienna, but fled to Britain before settling in the USA. “the regional Jewish community [of Nowy Sącz] numbered about 25,000 before World War 2… ninety percent of them died or did not return” [Wikipedia].

World Affairs: the Bulgarian king Ferdinand I orders his army to march into the disputed areas of Macedonia which were  taken from the Ottoman Empire by Greece and Serbia during the First Balkan War. This action destroys the Balkan League, and also forces Russia to rethink its strategic positions in the southern Balkans between the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires. the Second Balkan War will be short but bloody, and leave all parties dis-satisfied and with their objectives in the Balkans and the Aegean unresolved. In exactly one year from today the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand will be assassinated in Sarajevo…

King George of V of Great Britain and Ireland is visited by a delegation of four Tibetan boys bearing letters and gifts from the 13th Dalai Lama.

Accidents: In London’s Hyde Park, Captain Matthew Meiklejohn, who lost his right arm but gained the Victoria Cross at the Battle of Elandslaagte in the Boer War, in 1899, is out riding when his horse bolts. Unable to control the horse with just one  arm he narrowly prevents the horse from trampling a group of children by forcing it up against the railings of Rotten Row. Impaled on the railings, he dies of his injuries on 4th July.

Society and Culture: At London’s “Olympia” Exhibition Centre, Londoners are enjoying the 7th International Horse Show.

6th June 1913 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Dublin, Ireland – Patrick Campbell, 3rd Baron Glenavy. Chief Petty Officer in the Irish Marine, journalist, humorist and television personality (“Call My Bluff”). Author of “How to become a scratch golfer” (1963).

Also, in Budapest, Austria Hungary (now just Hungary)  – Gobbi Hilda, Hungarian actress.

Arms Race: The German Zeppelin LZ-19 makes its inaugural flight. Like many of its (18) predecessors it will have a short life. In April 1914 it is damaged beyond repair in a thunderstorm and scrapped.

Society and Culture: At Stoney Creek, near Fort George on the Canadian side of Lake Ontario, a monument is unveiled to mark the centenary of the Battle of Stoney Creek (6th June 1813) The monument is “unveiled by Queen Mary in London, by means of a transatlantic cable.” (?)  [ http://www.battlefieldhouse.ca/monument.asp ]

In South Africa, 600 women, led by Mrs Molisapoli, march in protest to the trial in Bloemfontein of 80 women activists imprisoned in the Orange Free State province on 28th May for participating in anti-pass law demonstrations.