15th June 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Purwokerto on the Island of Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia ) – her mother a descendent of the Maharaja of Java,  of Hindu, Polish, German and French extraction, her father a Danish engineer – Nini Arlette Thielade, ballet dancer.


13th December 1914 (Sunday)


~ in the Bronx – Ralph DiGia, “World War 2 conscientious objector, lifelong pacifist and social justice activist, and staffer for 52 years at the War Resisters League” [Wikipedia].


~ at Moama, New South Wales, Alexander Noel Constantine, survivor of the Battle of Britain, shot down and killed in Indonesia in 1947 by Dutch counter-insurgent P-40 Kittyhawks while he was flying an Indian transport plane (C-47 Dakota) carrying medicines donated by the Malayan Red Cross.



War at Sea: A British submarine (B11) penetrates the Dardanelle Straits and destroys the Turkish (British built) Battleship “Mesudiye”, killing 37,  before escaping back into the open waters of the Northern Aegean [Burg & Purcell].




2nd November 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Yogyakarta in Java, Dutch East Indes (now in  Indonesia) – Justinius Darmojuwono, Archbishop of Semarang,



Western Front – The first Battle of Ypres is reaching new heights of destruction as both the (sub) Battles of La Bassee and Armentieres draw to conclusions. An anonymous British nursing sister records in her diary:

“Eighty thousand German reinforcements are said to have come up to break through our line, and the British dead are now piled up on the field. But they aren’t letting the Germans through” [ie – to their target, which is Calais]. – Diary of A Nursing Sister on the Western Front, 1914-1915.



17th April 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Batavia in the Dutch East Indes, the  Bataviasche Kunstkring, the building to house the Fine Arts Circle of the Dutch East Indes, and recently (2013) re-opened in Indonesia as the Tugu Kunstring Paleis Hotel.



World Affairs: after 70 years of colonisation, and taking advantage of the weakness of its eastern neighbour, China, Imperial Russia declares the region of Tannu Tuva (approximately  Tannu  Uriankhai in northern Mongolia) a Russian “protectorate”.


Women’s suffrage: At Great Yarmouth in England, the pavilion on the seaside pier mysteriously burns down soon after the suffragettes have been refused permission to hold a meeting in it.


Society and Culture: In England, the Daily Mail newspaper, a bastion of ‘right’ thinking folk, reports that the National Union of Teachers has agreed to a resolution granting every teacher (ie not just Head Teachers) the right to cane pupils. “It [the Union] further urged that, failing the agreement of the Board of Education, the certificated members of the union should have the authority of the union in regard to their position to enforce discipline, when necessary, to the extent which the law allowed, all local rules to the contrary notwithstanding” (Daily Mail, 17th April 1914).


Road accidents: Meanwhile, Reggie Rooke, an Exeter lad, becomes an early road traffic accident statistic.





1st April 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: On the island of Java, in Indonesia – the city of Malang, “a trade centre of agricultural area in which sugar, rice, coffee, tea, corn, peanuts, cassava, and cinchona bark are grown”. Happy Centenary, Malang!


Society and culture: In the village of Burston, near Diss, in rural Norfolk, England, schoolchildren, supported by their parents, begin what will become (allegedly) the longest strike in history, in protest at the dismissal of their teacher.


Extreme Weather: In Massachusetts, it rains molasses. (well, it is April 1st, after all).