21st May 1913 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: at Tettenhall, Wolverhampton, UK – Leonard Cottrell, British author and journalist who popularised archaeology with titles like “Life under the Pharaohs”, “Crete, Island of Mystery”, and “The Quest for Sumer”.

Society and Culture: King George V of Britain and Ireland arrives in Germany  to attend the wedding of his cousin’s daughter – Princess Luise (daughter of the Kaiser). These two cousins are both grandchildren of Queen Victoria of Britain and Ireland. Tomorrow another of King George’s cousins, Tsar Nicholas II, will join them. These two cousins (George and Nicholas) are both grandchildren of King Christian X of Denmark.

In New York, Raffaele Ciavarella is executed in the electric chair for the crime of murder.

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26th April 1913 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY, in Steuben County, Indiana, USA – Edgar “Pop” Buell, who gave up farming in Indiana at the age of 47, leaving the US for the first time to become an agricultural advisor in Laos, where he worked for 14 years before having to be “smuggled out” for his own safety after a regime change.

Arms Race: The US Navy launches USS Nereus, a collier (coal transportation) vessel.  She will be lost at sea sometime in December 1941, presumed torpedo’ed by a german submarine, but neither the cause nor the location of the wreckage have ever been confirmed.

Society and Culture: The 28th world exposition opens in Ghent in Belgium, with a “floral palace” as its main attraction.

Crime and punishment: In the basement of a pencil factory where she worked, in Atlanta, Georgia, 13 year old Mary Phagan is found sexually molested and murdered. In response, the innocent Jewish factory owner, Leo Frank, is lynched by a Georgia mob led by the “Knights of Mary Phagan”.

Sport: UK soccer team Woolwich Arsenal play their last fixture at their south London ground (Manor Ground, Plumstead) , drawing 1-1 with Middlesbrough, resulting in the home team’s relegation from the english first division.  Their next match will be at their new ground at Highbury, North London, where they will be known simply as “Arsenal”.

25th April 1913 (Friday)

BORN TODAY, in Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA – Earl Bostic, American Jazz and Rhythm and Blues alto-saxophonist.

Also, in Los Angeles, Kenneth Spencer, bass-baritone opera singer killed in an air crash in 1964.

Arms Race: The Italian Regia Marina launches the submarine “Nautilus”.

Britain’s first “Defensively Armed Merchant Ship” (DAMS), RMS Aragon (later HMT Aragon) leaves Southampton. After serving as a troop carrier at Gallipoli (1915), she will eventually (1917) be sunk in the Mediterranean by a german submarine, with the loss of 610 lives.

Women’s suffrage: in the UK, Royal Assent is given for the notorious “Cat and Mouse Act” whereby a suffragette hunger striker in prison can be released on health grounds and re-incarcerated as soon as feasible to complete her original term of sentence.

Crime and punishment: Ivory Frazer is hanged in New Mexico for the murder of a Deputy Sheriff.

Society and culture: the US Marine Corps Association is founded at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

3rd April 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY, in a fjord fractured unpronounceable county in mid-Norway – Per Borten, agriculturalist and later the down to earth Prime Minister of Norway from 1965 to 1971.

Women’s suffrage: British suffragette leader Emmeline Pankhurst is found guilty in a London court of incitement to arson in the bombing of the country home of David Lloyd George, Chancellor of the Exchequer.  She is sentenced to three years in prison.

Meantime, in Manchester, UK, Evelyn Manesta, Annie Briggs and Lillian Forester attack pictures in the Manchester Art Gallery.

Arms Race: The German Zeppelin LZ-16 accidentally crosses the French border and makes an emergency landing in Lunéville.  The French detain the airship and its crew for one day, making detailed drawings and investigations of its workings.  The affair raises tensions on both sides.

In Glasgow, at the William Beardmore shipyard, HMS Inconstant, an Arethusa class light destroyer is laid down for the UK Royal Navy.

Science and technology: J.B. Watson launches Behavioural Psychology on an unsuspecting world with his lecture at Columbia University: “Image and affection in behaviour”.

Exploration: Alexander Wollaston brings to a close his expedition (“The second english south New Guinea expedition”) after he capsizes his canoe and loses most of his equipment and his diary, but not his collection. He intends to return to New Guinea but the First World War will prevent him from returning. On 3rd June1934 he will be shot dead in his college rooms by one his Cambridge students.

The Dismal science: John Maynard Keynes takes a seat on the Royal (British) Commission to enquire into (Indian) Finance and Currency.

Society and Culture: the first block of land is sold in Leeton, in the newly irrigated rice-growing Riverina district of New South Wales.

Transportation: Nova Lima, in the Minas Gerais State in central South Eastern Brazil, opens its electic tramway system.

Shipping accidents: the trawler “Dauntless” out of Hull, England is posted missing after failing to arrive back from a five week trip to the Icelandic fishing grounds. 12 crewmen are lost.

31st March 1913 (Monday)

BORN TODAY, in Oldham, England – Walter Winterbottom CBE, first manager of the England Football Team (1946-1962).

DIED TODAY, (both) in Rome, Italy – John Pierpont (J.P.) Morgan, financier, philanthropist, collector etc, etc, and The Honourable Sidney Herbert 14th Earl of Pembroke, 11th Earl of Mongomery GCVO PC, British Politician and Peer.

Arms Race: The French Navy launches the destroyer “Chalon-sur-Saone”

The Danish Royal Navy launches the Havmanden class submarine “Triton”, built by Whitehead & Co in Fiume (then in Austria-Hungary, now in Croatia).

Law and Order: Sergeant Crouch, aged 33,  of the Wiltshire (UK) police force is shot dead by a police constable Crouch has reported, before the assassin turns the gun on himself.

In the adjoining county of Dorset, in the village of Gussage St Michael, 24 year old Winifred Mitchell is murdered and buried in a pre-prepared shallow grave which two young boys had observed in the woods the previous day.

Society and Culture: The first meeting of the Hindi Association of the (US) Pacific Coast takes place in Bridal Veil, Oregon. It is more popularly known as the Ghadr (rebellion) Party.

Scottish born communist and political activist Jack Miles arrives in Brisbane having emigrated to Queensland with his wife, Elizabeth.

In Mumbai, India, the British authorities lay the foundation stone for the “Gateway of India”, a monumental memorial in Indo-Saracenic style to commemorate the landing, at that spot, of King George V of Britain and Ireland and his consort, Queen Elizabeth, two years earlier.

Music and entertainment: In Vienna, at a first night concert performance, fights break out between the audience and members of the Vienna Orchestra, bringing the concert to a premature close and earning it the title of “skandalkonzert”.

28th March 1913 (Friday)

BORN TODAY, in Elbistan, central southern Turkey – Astrid Aghajanian (born Helen Galdzakian) Armenian survivor of the 1915 genocide. After her father was shot, she and her mother escaped from forced march, were found first by Bedouin tribesmen (who sold them to another) and then saved by a Turkish Officer.

She eventually settled in Shoreham-by Sea (West Sussex) in England, via Aleppo (Syria), British Palestine (1920s), fleeing to Amman in Jordan in 1948, to Cyprus (Kyrenia) but forced to flee again after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974.

She died in Gloucester (UK) in May 2012. “”You may destroy the spider’s home, but he will always build it again.”

Arms Race: The UK House of Commons (the lower house of the Parliament) votes for a major expansion of the British (military) fleet, which is expected to increase by five battleships, eight cruisers and sixteen torpedo boats.

Crime and Punishment: In Carroll Country, Virginia, USA, Floyd Allen and his son Claud are put to death in the electric chair. Floyd was convicted of obstructing justice, after which the judge, the sheriff, the county prosecutor and two other people were murdered in a courthouse shooting which Floyd was found guilty of instigating.

Accidents: At the Pitsea explosive factory in Essex, UK, which produces dynamite and gelignite, three men die and others are injured by an explosion in a guncotton drying stove.

One person dies and 28 are injured after a combination of driver error and inadequate signalling cause a railway accident at Marylebone Station in London.

History of Transport: The Oxford  based Morris car-plant in the UK produces its first ever vehicle: a “Bullnose Morris Oxford”.

Extreme Weather:  On South Island, New Zealand at least 3 people drown in severe flooding in Canterbury, Otago and Southland.

22nd March 1913 (Easter Saturday)

BORN TODAY, in Cleveland, Ohio – Louis Robert (“Lew”) Wasserman, Chairman and CEO of MCA Inc (Music Corporation of America) for many decades. Died in Beverley Hills, 2002.

Arms Race: In France, the Brumaire Class submarine “Franklin” is launched. It will be scrapped in 1922.

Science and technology: Transatlantic wireless communication is achieved between Maryland, USA and the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France.

Society ands Culture: The British government in India bans the import (into India) of an anti-British newspaper “El Islam”, which supports the cause of Abdul Hafiz Mohamed Barkatullah (honorific, Maulana Barkatullah)  whose 1912 paper “Christian Combination against Islam” has urged muslims to support the German Kaiser against Anglo-Saxon “sea wolves”.

Infamous Crimes: Hyam Hyams dies of exhaustion and cardio-vascular degeneration In the Colney Hatch lunatic asylum, North London, where has been incarcerated (with brief intervals elsewhere) since 1889. Known for his violent record in the East End of London in the 1880s he was one of a long list of suspects for the notorious “Jack the Ripper” killings.