26th July 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Nidubrolu in Andhra Pradesh, British India – Pragada Kotaiah, freedom fighter and parliamentarian.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragada_Kotaiah

War!

Socialism in Italy: a “rising star” of the Italian socialist party, one Benito Mussolini, expresses the view that “Italian workers should give ‘not a penny’ to the cause of war, nor spill ‘one drop of blood’ for a cause that had ‘nothing to do with it’. If the government failed to declare neutrality, the proletatriat would force it to do so”. [Mark Thompson: “The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919”].

Fire in Constantinople:  A great fire in Istanbul, later attributed to Russian areoplane bombing, destroys over 3000 buildings.

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=WC19150825.2.49.3

Submarines in the Dardanelles: the French submarine “Mariotte” is sunk by the Ottoman Navy, and its crew taken as prisoners of war.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_July_1915

Discipline on the Western Front: in the largest single judicial execution by the British during the war, 5 members of the 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment are executed on the ramparts of Ypres.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn

28th May, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: In Cambridge, England – Fred Unwin, local man, brush salesman, milkman, psychiatric nurse and ‘desert rat’ with the Eighth Army. Later, an amateur (Cambridge) community historian. Passed away in December 2014, aged 99. RIP.

http://cambridgehistorian.blogspot.com/2012/07/fred-unwin-pimbo-author.html

Colonial unrest: In Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) against a backdrop of the recent imposition of martial law by the (British) authorities, A Buddhist procession celebrating Vesak Poya Day defies orders to stop drum beating while passing a mosque in Gampola town. Violence follows, including Buddhists attacks on a mosque, and on muslim businesses, escalating to 63 deaths across the island [Lanka Herald website].

http://lankaherald.com/2015/02/01/from-1915-to-independence/

26th May 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: – On Piccadilly Circus, London – the Regent Palace Hotel – with 1,028 rooms, the largest hotel in Europe.

War!

On the (British) Home Front: Three die after Southend, a town to the east of London, is bombed by Zeppelin LZ-38.

http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/26th-may/4585986727

On the (German) Home Front:  The French airforce bomb the German chlorine gas and acid factory at Ludwigshafen releasing clouds of gas over parts of the city of Mannheim.  [Burg & Purcell].

On the (Russian) Home Front: In Moscow, the start of three days of rioting targeting ethnic germans, and foreigners more generally, brings Russia’s second city to  “a chaotic orgy of looting, arson, destruction, and violence that observers saw as akin to civil war or revolution. Approximately eight were killed and 40 seriously injured by the rioters [before] the troops finally intervened on 29 May.”

https://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/kritika/v004/4.3lohr.pdf

21st May, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY – in response to Italy’s decision to enter the war, threatening the Austro-Hungarian borders in the Alps – the deutsches Alpenkorps, under the command of Generalleutnant Konrad Krafft von Delmensingen, the former chief of staff of the Bavarian Army and a noted mountain warfare expert.

http://www.austro-hungarian-army.co.uk/alpkorps.htm

Law and Order: In Norway’s Oslofjorden, the Bastøy Boys are revolting.

http://www.norskfolkemuseum.no/en/Exhibits/Previous-exhibits/Bad-boy-Bastoy-juvenile-correction-facility/

War!

On the (British) Home Front – Under pressure to form a new coalition government, the Liberal Leader, Asquith, is persuaded to remove Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty. (Burg & Purcell].

 

15th May 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in London – Hilda Schwarz (later Bernstein), journalist, author, artist, activist, communist and exile.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_Bernstein

War!

The Dardanelles: Senior British Admiral Sir John Fisher resigns in protest at what he perceives to be Churchill’s misplaced obsession with forcing the Dardanelles, a strategy which has so far yielded nothing but many thousands of deaths [Burg & Purcell].

The Western Front: After a 60 hour bombardment by 433 artillery pieces   firing about 100,000 shells, British General Sir Douglas Haig launches his British, Indian and Canadian  army against the German defences on the first day of the Battle of Festubert.  After 10 days and over 20,000 casualities the Allies will have gained approximately 3 kilometres. Overall losses for the Second Battle of Artois (of which this forms part) are in the order of 200,000 German, French, British, Indian and Canadian men, including over 100,000 Frenchmen [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Festubert

Revolution!

The Reuters News Agency files unconfirmed reports (from the Spanish government) of a revolutionary coup in Portugal, where all communications (railway, telegraph etc) have been cut and there are (unfounded) rumours that the ex-Premier, Afonso Costa, has been assassinated.

http://www.cphrc.org/index.php/documents/firstrepublic/475-1915-05-15-commune-in-portugal

11th May 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Luanda, Angola – Aníbal da Fonseca Paciência, Portuguese footballer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An%C3%ADbal_Paci%C3%AAncia

War!

The (English) Home Front: In Liverpool, which has experienced several days of riots targetting german, and alleged german, businesses and homes after the sinking of the Lusitania, a crowd of 2000 intent on rioting – or perhaps looting – in the Wallasey district has to be turned back by a cordon of police. With much german owned property already destroyed the xenophobic crowd directs its attention to other groups – Scandinavians, Italians, Russians and Chinese. The rioting also spreads to Manchester.

http://www.hssr.mmu.ac.uk/mcrh/files/2013/01/mrhr_02ii_panayi.pdf

The Eastern Front: Tsar Nicholas writes home to his wife, Alexandra. After explaining to her the current difficulties of the Russian Army in the face of the German and Austrian advance, and giving his assessment of the performance of various Russian commanders, he concludes:  “For the last few days the weather has been magnificent, the woods smell so delightfully and the birds sing so loudly. It is a veritable rustic idyll – if only it were not for the war I drive about in a car, look at new places, get out and walk.”

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/may15.html

24th April 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Bletchingley, Surrey, England – Field Marshal Richard Michael Power (Baron) Carver, GCB, CBE, DSO & Bar, MC, educated at Winchester and Sandhurst; Chief of General Staff and Head of the British Army from 1973 to 1976.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Carver,_Baron_Carver

War!

On the (Turkish) Home Front: In Istanbul the authorities arrest around 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders, today being conventionally referenced as the start of the Armenian massacres which some describe as a holocause or genocide. An estimated 1 to 1.5 million Armenians will die in the troubles ahead.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Genocide

http://hmd.org.uk/content/24041915-deportation-armenian-intellectuals-istanbul

On the (English) Home Front: In East London (UK)Leyton Orient football (soccer) club beat visitors Leicester City 2-0  to maintain their position at 9th in England’s second division.

http://www.statto.com/football/stats/results/1915-04-24/leyton-orient-v-leicester-city

On the Western Front: at the Battle of St Julien (Ypres), the German army releases more chlorine gas, successfully breaking the line of the Canadian 1st Division, who have been advised to counteract the gas by urinating on thier handkerchiefs.

http://ww1cemeteries.com/ww1cemeteries/second_battle_of_ypres.htm