14th July 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Vilnius (in the Russian Empire, but occupied at the time by Germany) – Harold Pupkewitz, Lithuanian emigre and Namibian businessman.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Pupkewitz

Society and culture: at Penantigi Uchaf, Dinas Mawddwy in North Wales, today is a sheep-shearing day.

http://education.gtj.org.uk/en/blowup1/14623

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26th August 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Transvaal, South Africa – The National Party (Transvaal), representing the interests of Afrikaners.

War!

Eastern Front: In East Prussia, near  a town called Allenstein, the Russian Second Army under General Samsonov  – a force of around 230,000 – men engages with German Eighth Army (150,000). The Battle will last for five days and result in a crushing defeat for the Russians, with 92,000 taken prisoner and 78,000 killed or wounded. General Samsonov takes his own life, and the Germans decide to call the Battle “Tannenberg” (actually 30 miles away) to avenge a defeat of the Teutonic Knights at the hands of Lithuanian and Polish forces in the year 1410.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tannenberg

Western Front: At least 700 allied soldiers die as British and French forces fight a rearguard action at the Battle of Le Cateau, which buys them sufficient time to continue an orderly retreat ahead of the advancing Germans. The German loss of life is not recorded.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Le_Cateau

 Africa: The German colony of Togoland surrenders to British and French forces.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alhaji_Grunshi

 

 

 

26th July 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: In Llanelli, Wales, to Lithuanian parents – Isaac Cohen, Chief Rabbi of Ireland from 1956 to 1979.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Cohen

World Affairs: The British Government, distracted until yesterday with its Irish question, and only just beginning to focus on the European situation, attempts to organize a political conference among the major European powers to resolve the dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. France and Italy agree to participate. Russia then agrees, but Germany refuses.

Meanwhile Russia begins “pre-mobilisation” measures along its borders with Austria-Hungary, part of its “period preparatory to war”, including cancelling leave for reservists and clearing frontier railway lines.

The French also cancel all military leave and order most of their troops back from Morocco.

Tiny Montenegro mobilizes!

http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/firstworldwar/index-1914.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/July_Crisis

Ireland: In the “Howth gun running incident” Irish Nationalists smuggle a consignment of old rifles from the Franco-Prussian War (1870) into the country. They will eventually see service in the Easter Rising in 1916.

When the British authorities attempt to intervene events rapidly turn bloody, resulting in the infamous “Massacre of Bachelor’s Walk”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howth_gun-running

http://www.politics.ie/forum/history/213567-bachelors-walk-forgotten-massacre-july-26-1914-a.html

24th July 1914 (Friday)

BORN  TODAY: in Colonial Beach, Virginia, USA, the son of Lithuanian/ Austrian immigrants, – Edwin “Honest Ed” Mirvish, Canadian businessman, philanthropist and theatre impresario.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ed_Mirvish

Labour Relations: In Saint John, New Brunswick, striking street (trolley) car workers supported by 10,000 sympathisers rampage and riot on the city’s streets.

file:///Users/AnthonyFudge/Downloads/11570-15564-1-PB.pdf

Arts and Literature: In Cornwall, in England’s West Country, Forence Munnings (nee Carter-Wood) aged 26, the muse and wife of the artist Alfred Munnings, takes her own life by cyanide poisoning.

http://cornishmuse.blogspot.com/2013/03/summer-in-february-art-in-lamorna-1910.html

 

15th July 1913 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Smarhon’, or Smorgon, in Russia (now in Belarus) – Abraham Sutzkever, YIddish poet, Jewish partisan against the Germans in wartime Vilna (the Jewish Ghetto in Vilnius, now in Lithuania), rescued by the Soviets from the Lithuanian forest in 1944, witness at the Nuremburg trials  (February 1946) and immigrant to Mandate Palestine in 1947.

Arms and technology: Swiss citizen Franz Schneider is granted a patent for a synchronisation device that allows a machine gun to fire between an aircraft’s spinning propeller blades.

World Affairs: Britain’s House of Lords votes down the Irish Home Rule Bill, prompting the Prime Minister to announce his intentions to abolish the Upper House during the next parliament. In the real world his plans both for Ireland and the Peers of the Realm will soon be overtaken by world war 1.

20th May 1913 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: Five not at all of a kind:

In Ann Arbor, Michigan – William Redington Hewlett – co-founder of Hewlett Packard;

In Port de Paix, Haiti – Emile Jonassaint – Supreme Court Justice and temporary Head of State after the expulsion of the elected president in 1991;

In London, England – Jasmine Lydia Bligh – one of the BBC’s original three (female) TV presenters;

In Konigsberg, Germany (now Kaliningrad, an exclave of Russia inside Lithuania)  – Hans-Gunther Bethke –  Wehrmacht soldier and Iron Cross holder who was killed near Leningrad in 1942; and

In Lowell, Massachusetts – Vito Paulekas – son of Lithuanian immigrants, artist, “bohemian” and prime mover of the South California ‘freak scene” in the 1960s;

Arms Race: In Bath, Maine, USA, the US Navy launches the destroyer USS Cassin.

Women’s Suffrage – In Hastings, England, an angry mob of about 300 men attacks a meeting of the National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS).  Later the NUWSS sues the Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of Hastings under the Riot Damage Act to recover money they have been forced to pay to an hotelier for damage by the mob.

Society and Culture: London holds its first “Chelsea Flower Show”.