4th June, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Bamako, capital of the colony of French Sudan (now Mali) – Modibo Keïta, the first President of independent Mali, 1960-1968.



Gallipoli: At the Third Battle of Krithia, the Allies once again fail to make any significant advance against the Turkish defenders.



On the Western Front: Private Oliver W. Hodgetts (8662) 1st Battalion Worcestershire Regiment, having recently been found guilty of cowardice, is shot by firing squad at dawn. Private Hodgetts is 20 years old.


On the (English) Home Front: in Kent, the Dover Express reports how the local golf club is enjoying great popularity with Military Officers, who are however having to “make do” with girl caddies because so many young men are away fighting the war.


16th January 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY – Miroslaw Zulawski, in Nisko, Poland. Poet, soldier, war correspondent, editor-in chief, screenwriter, diplomat and Polish ambassador to Senegal and Mali.

First Balkan War – in the UK, there are “questions in the house” about atrocities being committed against muslims in Albania, Macedonia and Thrace.

Following the coup in Istanbul the new Turkish government hardens its position  on the Bulgarian occupation of Adrianople (Edirne), leading Bulgaria to denounce the recently signed armistice.

Mathematics and literature: G.H. Hardy, a prominent English mathematician receives a letter from an unknown Indian clerk called Ramanujan, who is “discovered” to be a mathematical genius, and is invited to join Hardy in Cambridge. The subsequent events are the subject of a novel published in 2007 by David Leavitt: “The Indian Clerk”

Shipping disaster: The “Veronese” a British packet boat sinks off Porto, Portugal, with a loss of 40 lives.