14th July 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Vilnius (in the Russian Empire, but occupied at the time by Germany) – Harold Pupkewitz, Lithuanian emigre and Namibian businessman.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Pupkewitz

Society and culture: at Penantigi Uchaf, Dinas Mawddwy in North Wales, today is a sheep-shearing day.

http://education.gtj.org.uk/en/blowup1/14623

27th April 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Alexandropol in the Russian Empire (now Gyumri in western Armenia, near the Turkish border)  – Hovhannes (Onik) Tadevosi Karapetyan, poet.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hovhannes_Shiraz

War!

War at Sea: In the Straits of Otranto, between Italy and Albania, where the French are attempting to blockade the Austro-Hungarian navy inside the Adriatic (ie preventing access to the wider Mediterranean), the Austrian submarine U-5 torpedoes and sinks the cruiser Leon Gambetta, sending 547 sailors to their death. [Burg & Purcell].

 Africa: At Gibeon Station in German South West Africa (now Namibia)  – 41 German and South African soldiers die in battle.

http://www.trenchfighter.com/41815/205801.html

Western Front: GAS!

The 3rd and 4th [gas] attacks took place on 26-27 April 1915 at Steenstrate-Lizerne, near Ieper, in which British, Sikhs and French were the victims. To the left of the Sikhs were French Colonial troops with essentially North Africans and at their right were the British. The Ferozepur Brigade, and the French colonial troops to the left of them, were the worst hit. More gas attacks followed on 27-29 April and 01-02 May 1915 and the victims were again British, Sikhs, Pathans, French and Algerians. [http://www.sikhiwiki.org/].

http://www.sikhiwiki.org/index.php/Menin_Gate_and_the_Sikhs

19th October 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Greenwood, Mississippi – Juanita Moore, American film, television, and stage actress who died earlier this year in Los Angeles, aged 99.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juanita_Moore

War!

Western Front: In Belgium, German forces are converging for an attack at Ypres, a vital transport and communications centre, with the intention of taking control of the Channel ports [Burg and Purcell].

After several gruelling days battling death on hospital trains, an anonymous British nursing sister manages a short respite in Rouen:

“This is the most glorious old city, two cathedrals of surpassing beauty, lovely old streets, broad river, hills, and lovely hot baths and hair shampooing, What with two cathedrals, a happy hour in a hot bath, a shampoo, and delicious tea in the town, we’ve had a happy day.” [from the “Diary of a Nursing Sister on the Western Front, 1914-1915”].

In the Middle East: T.E, Lawrence, held back at the War Office in London in case his special regional knowledge and language skills may yet be put to use, writes to the wife of the British consul in Aleppo, in the Ottoman Empire: “Turkey seems at last to have made up its mind to lie down and be at peace with all the world… I’m sorry because I wanted to root them out of Syria, and now their blight will be more enduring than ever” [Scott Anderson: “Lawrence in Arabia, War, Deceit, Imperial Folly  and the Making of the Modern Middle East”].

In South West Africa:  a German military column crosses the border from (German) South West Africa and enters [Portuguese] Angola without authorization from the Portuguese authorities. The column is intercepted by Portuguese forces and conducted to Fort Naulila, where a dispute results in the death of three German officers. [Wikipedia]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naulila

 

 

28th April 1913 (Monday)

BORN TODAY, in Windhoek, Namibia – Walter Ehle, WW2 Luftwaffe night fighter ace. Died 18 November 1943, aged 30 during a crash landing in Belgium.

Global Finance: In order to repay a $10million bond due to Britain, Guatemala is forced to apply to the US for aid.

Early Flight: the first prototype of the Cody V experimental  biplane breaks up in mid air and crashes, killing the pilot, Lt L.C Rogers Harrison. The second (and only other) prototype is retired, eventually finding its way to the science museum in London.

Migration: Eva Theresa Korhammer, aged 5, from Ofuttak in Austria-Hungary (now Serbia) arrives in New York with her mother and siblings on board SS Bueruia, to join her father who is living in Pennsylvania.

Transport: The city of Aberdeen in Scotland begins an experimental “pay as you enter” fare collection arrangement on its local trams.

27th February 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY, at Bieliny in South Central Poland – Kazimierz Sabbat, President of the Polish Government in Exile (based in London) from 1986 to 1989. He died in London, aged 76, in 1989 – on the same day that the Parliament in Poland elected its first President since the 1950s (Wojciech Jaruzelski, who would be replaced in 1990 by Lech Walesa of the Polish second republic).

World Affairs: The Albanian Congress of Trieste convenes in Trieste, Austria- Hungary (now part of Italy). The objectives of the congress include the preparation of a request for Albania to be formally recognized as independent by the Great Powers, the delineation of its borders, and a treaty of friendship with neighboring Aromanian (Vlach) populations.

Natural disasters:  Ethiopia experiences the Asmara earthquake, a strong seismic event felt as far away as Kassala in Eastern Sudan.

Society & culture: In London, the first edition of the journal “Muslim India and the Islamic Review” is published. It will change its name to “The Islamic Review and Muslim India” in 1914 and to simply “The Islamic Review” in 1921.

Empire: In Windhoek, in the German Protectorate of German South West Africa (now Namibia), John Ludwig – pioneer tobacco farmer – dies and becomes (on 1st March) the first person to be buried in the Klein Windhoek cemetery. He is considered by many to be the founder of Klein Windhoek.