21st August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Copenhagen – Anna Rachel Rastén, the Danish singer better known as Raquel Rastenni.


MODERN AGRICULTURE: In California, the Pacific Rural Press reports on a Texan farmer’s recent success in breeding “Cattelo”, a hybrid cattle and buffalo stock.



Gallipoli: In what will prove to be the last major offensive in the Gallipoli campaign, a force of New Zealand, Ghurka and (later) Australian troops launches the attack on “Hill 60”.


Armenian expulsions: Harrowing stories continue to emerge about the forced mass expulsion of Armenians through and out of Anatolia.



12th February, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: ~ Camouflage. [guinessworldrecords.com].


~ in Ottawa, Canada, to Russian Jewish immigrants – Lyon Himan Green, better known as Lorne Green, and even better known as Ben Cartwright, patriarch of the fictional Ponderosa Ranch in Nevada.



Western Front: Thirty four British navy airplanes launch a major air raid on German occupied towns in Belgium in an effort to disrupt supply lines and communications supporting the German submarine offensives.


In the Middle East: A small combined Egyptian and Ghurka (Nepalese) force under British command lands at Tor on the Gulf of Suez and begins to restore order by destroying Arab raiding parties in the Sinai region, which have been allied with the recent unsuccesful Turkish attack on the canal.


29th May 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Khumbu, Nepal – Tenzing Norgay, mountaineer.


Shiiping Accidents: In the early morning fog of the St Lawrence River, the RMS Empress of Ireland collides with the Norwegian collier, SS Storstad and sinks. 1012 souls perish.


20th February 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY, in Adelaide, South Australia – Mary Durack, AC DBE, author and historian of Australian settler life. Her works include: Kings in Grass Castles; Sons in the Saddle; Swan River Saga – Life of Pioneer Eliza  Shaw; and “The Aborigines in Australian Literature”.

Also, Hilda Fest, a Norwegian lady who at the age of 98 was raped and murdered by 19 year old Christian  Haugland, on New Years day 2012.

Society and Culture: King O’Malley, the Australian Minister for Home Affairs, drives home the first surveying stake for what will soon become the City of Canberra, future capital of Australia.

World Affairs: After riots in Japan the government loses the first ever vote of no-confidence and the leader (Katsura) resigns, to be replaced by a former navy admiral. On the same day a massive fire in the city destroys around 1500 homes.

In Nepal, the young king, Tribhuhvan Bir Bikram Shah, not yet 7 years old, is crowned at the Nasal Chowk Hanumna  Dhoka Palace in Kathmandu. Apart from a a brief exile in the early nineteen-fifties he will reign in Nepal until his death in 1955.

 Arms Race – HMS Eagle is laid down at the Armstong shipyards in Newcastle, UK. Originally contacted for sale to Chile as a super dreadnought class battleship, she is bought by Britain in 1918 for conversion to an aircraft carrier, and will see action in the Battle of Malta before being sunk by German submarine U-73 with a loss of 131 “officers and men” in August 1942.

Science and Technology – the City of Salta, in North West Argentina, converts its 19 year old tram system from horse drawn to electric.

12th February 1913 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY, Alfred Gregory, British explorer, mountaineer and professional photographer who was part of the first team to successfully scale, in 1953, the mountain the Tibetans call Chomolungma, and the Nepalis call Sagarmatha. The British call it Everest, after a nineteenth century [British] Surveyor General of India. Hubris!

First Balkan War: The Ottoman Empire asks the Great Powers to intervene to bring the war to an end.

World Affairs:  In Tokyo, a new government is formed by 60 year old Count Gombei Yamamato who graduated form the US Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1877.

Suffragettes: The second US suffrage hike, designed to bring attention to the question of women’s suffrage, leaves the Hudson Terminal in New York City bound for Washington DC, roughly 250 miles away.

Transportation: In Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, work starts on the Transcontinental railway to connect  with Port Augusta in South Australia. The railway will open for business in 1917.