13th June 1915 (Sunday)

The 19th century is slowly passing away

DIED TODAY

~ RIP Viscount Nabeshima Naoyoshi, 13th and final daimyo of the Kashima Domain, in Hizen Province in the north west corner of the island of Kyushu, in south west Japan.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabeshima_Naoyoshi

~ RIP Danish explorer Anders Christian Barclay Raunkiær, traveller to Riyadh and through eastern Arabia.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barclay_Raunki%C3%A6r

~ RIP Amédée William Merlaud-Ponty, Governor General of French West Africa.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Merlaud-Ponty

5th February, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in New York City – Robert Hofstader, Nobel prize winning nuclear physicist.

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1961/hofstadter-facts.html

War!

In the Ottoman Empire: the Philadelphia “Saturday Evening Post” publishes a Turkish proclamation announcing and justifying the deportation of Armenians from the Empire.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Up6V6UFMCqAC&pg=PA641&lpg=PA641&dq=5th+february+1915&source=bl&ots=Um5mFRiG79&sig=TxakTyFs1oZCuc0hypEiGL8RUXU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=6c7MVPWhNYTWarbFgMAL&ved=0CDkQ6AEwBTgo#v=onepage&q=5th%20february%201915&f=false

On the Home Front: in London, Lancelot Dickinson Chapman is exposed in the Daily Mirror newspaper under the headline “Bogus VC Hero” after he spent several months “invent[ing] a persona for himself as a battlefield hero” . Later in the month he is sentenced to 10 months hard labour for his deception. [Great War London, blog].

https://greatwarlondon.wordpress.com/2012/05/20/a-fake-hero/

New Year’s Day, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Medyn, in the Kaluga Oblast in the western Russian Empire – Izaak Fleischfarb, zionist, and later communist, activist. Later better known as Józef “The Butcher” Światło, known for supervising the torture of inmates on behalf of the Ministry of Public Security (sic) in Poland. Later, after defecting to the west, he worked for the CIA and Radio Free Europe. Apparently he died in 1994, although “documents relating to him are still classified in the United States and not available to researchers. [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B3zef_%C5%9Awiat%C5%82o

War!

War at Sea: In the French La Manche/ English Channel, German submarine U24 torpedoes and sinks the British battleship “Formidable” with the loss of 547 seamen. {Burg and Purcell].

Far from the front: In Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia, two men later identified as muslims from British India (now Pakistan) shoot dead four people and wound seven more, before being killed by police and military officers (“The Battle of Broken HIll”). Flying the Ottoman flag, the two former camel-drivers at Broken Hill open fire on a train carrying picnickers celebrating the New Year holiday.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Broken_Hill

Peace:

Railway accident: In Ilford, East of London, two morning passenger trains collide. Ten passengers die, and “upwards of 500 passengers have notified the Company of personal injuries or of shock sustained.”

http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/docsummary.php?docID=313

Dissent: The Herald League Rooms in Buchanan Street, Glasgow, Scotland are the venue today for a meeting of the Glasgow Anarchist Group, an activist group supporting anti-war and anti-conscription policies.

http://sites.scran.ac.uk/redclyde/redclyde/rc001.htm

Oh, Brave, Unhappy, New Year…

3rd December 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in London, England – Tanya Moiseiwitsch, theatre designer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanya_Moiseiwitsch

War!

The Balkan Front: At the Battle of Kolubara, the Serbs launch their counter-attack against the Austro-Hungarian forces.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_kolubra.html

In the Middle East: At the juncture of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Turkish Mesopotamia (now Southern Iraq), an Anglo-Indian force is advancing on the town of Al-Qurnah

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Qurna

The Western Front: at Hazebrouck in the arrondissement of Dunkirk, near the French border with Belgium, Britain’s King George V  and Belgium’s King Albert attend a “march past” of Belgian troops.

http://www.loyalregiment.com/photo-h-m-the-king-visits-the-troops-december-1914/

 

12th July 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: – probably in California – Matilda (“Tillie”) Shamlian (family name meaning “one who raises silk worms”), daughter of 26 year old Levon, a Turkish Armenian immigrant and shoemaker, and his wife Flora (21), also a Turkish immigrant.

Click to access 7_Shamlian.pdf

World Affairs:  At Dunkirk, in France – President Raymond Poincare and Prime Minister René Viviani embark aboard the new battleship “France”, bound for Russia, on a scheduled state visit. [Almanac of World War 1]

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=p-NwX2siCJMC&pg=PT15&lpg=PT15&dq=poincare+dunkirk+july+1914&source=bl&ots=6eKKi2_kjF&sig=UD7freFn0zGR9DrliPGyFtf1un8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wWykU56XA8ey0QW0_4CwCQ&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=poincare%20dunkirk%20july%201914&f=false

 

 

1st July 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Tikrit in the Ottoman Empire (now Iraq) – Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr, President of Iraq, 1968-79, and cousin of Saddam Hussein.

http://www.nndb.com/people/738/000134336/

Europe’s “July Crisis”…

Across Europe, diplomats and politicians are consulting and manoeuvering to evaluate the threats and opportunities created by the assassination of the Archduke on Sunday.

“The nations slithered over the brink into the boiling cauldron of war” [David Lloyd George, currently the UK’s Chancellor of the Exchequer; later leader of the wartime coalition government”

 

 

14th June 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Korostienie in the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, Imperial Russia – Piotr Kozachenko, graduate of the Odessa Military Air College (1936) who fought with the Chinese forces against the Japanese in 1937 and for the Soviet Union against Finland in the Winter War in 1939-1940. On the first day of the Great Patriotic War against Germany (in 1941) he claimed his first successes against German aircraft, and in 1942 was fighting on the North Caucasus front. After receiving the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin in May 1943 he began operating over the Crimea area on the 2nd Ukrainian Front. He died during a mission over Danzig, Germany (now Gdansk in Poland) in March 1945, aged 30.

http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/soviet_kozachenko.htm

~ in Nagutskaya, in the Caucasus region of  Imperial Russia, Yuri Andropov: orphan; loader; telegraph clerk; sailor on the Volga; young communist; local and then national activist; Soviet Ambassador to Budapest during the Hungarian uprising; Chairman of the KGB; Politburo member; interrogator; invader of Afghanistan; and General Secretaty of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. {Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuri_Andropov

World Affairs: Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who has been taking a holiday in Russian Crimea, visits the Romanian King, by sea, in Constanta, Romania, along with the Russian foreign Minister, Sazonov. On the agenda is the tenuous balance of power in the Balkan’s in recent years, where  Ottomans, Habsurgs, Russians and Italians have been vying for position.

Click to access ROMANIA-AND-THE-TRIPLE-ENTENTE.pdf

Extreme Weather: In South West London, England a freak thunderstorm causes death and flooding. Among the dead are three young children sheltering under a lightning struck tree in an area known as “The Frying Pan” on Wandsworth Common.

http://www.ukweatherworld.co.uk/forum/index.php?/topic/44568-blood-red-tempest-south-london-sunday-14th-june-1914/

Arts and Literature: Publisher A.C MClurg of Chicago publishes the first book edition of Edgar Rice Burrough’s “Tarzan of the Apes”

http://www.abebooks.com/book-search/title/tarzan-apes/author/edgar-rice-burroughs/publisher/1914/first-edition/sortby/1/

13th June 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: At Ashton under Lyne, Manchester, England – George Currie, Royal Navy Stoker, First Class, serving on HMS Hood at the age of 26 when it was sunk during the Battle of Denmark Strait. He was not one of the three men who survived.

http://www.hmshood.com/crew/memorial/c/CurrieG.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Hood_(51)

World Affairs:

~ Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany is spending the weekend  as the guest of  the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, at the Archduke’s  hunting lodge and country estate in Konopischt, Bohemia, in the Austria- Hungarian Empire (now in the Czech Republic). On the agenda is the tenuous balance of power in the Balkan’s in recent years, where  Ottomans, Habsurgs, Russians and Italians have been vying for position.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/kaiser-wilhelm-concludes-meeting-with-archduke-franz-ferdinand

~ in Paris, Jean Raphaël Adrien René Viviani is appointed the 81st Prime Minister of France by its President, Raymond Poincare

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Viviani

Science and technology: The Bulgarian island of  St. Anastasia in the Black Sea is blessed with a new lighhouse, visible from 10 miles.

http://gotoburgas.com/en/places-to-go/view/23

20th May 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY:  in Ashby de la Zouch, Leicestershire (England) – John ‘Ted’ Edward Dickinson, left-handed cricketer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ted_Dickinson

World Affairs: In Athens, the Ottoman Ambassador to Greece proposes to the Greek Premier Venizelos a “population exhange” whereby the muslim communities of Macedonia (including Salonica – now Thessaloniki) will be “swapped” for the Greek communities  in and around Smyrna (now Izmir) on the Anatolian coast.

http://ceb.revues.org/922

Global oil: The British government and the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) sign an agreement for the British Government to become a majority (51%) shareholder in APOC. The agreement gives the British government the right to appoint two directors on the Board who have the power of veto on any questions relating to British national interests. Also on the same day, a contract is signed between APOC and the British Admiralty by which APOC guarantees the supply of oil to the British Admiralty for 30 years at fixed prices.

http://www.iranchamber.com/history/articles/oil_iran_between_world_wars.php

Exploration: In St Petersburg (later Petrograd, then Leningrad, now St Petersburg again) Sergei Fedorovich Oldenburg leaves for his second Russian Turkestan expedition, accomapnied by the  artist V. S. Bikenberg, topographer N. A. Smirnov, photographers Dudian and Romberg, seven Kazakh guards, and a Chinese interpreter. The expediton will take 3 months to reach its final destination  –  the ‘caves of a thousand Buddhas’ at Mogao, near Dunhuang.

http://idp.bl.uk/pages/collections_ru.a4d

Society and culture: In a village south of Lyon in France, Monsieur Falour accepts a wager to eat 50 eggs and a pound of bread at a single sitting. Sadly, he drops dead after the 45th egg.

Men, eh?

http://www.boards.ie/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=2057210782