22nd June 1915 (Tuesday)

EXPLORATION: Members of Ernest Shackleton’s Antarctic expedition celebrate mid-winter with a dinner on board HMS Endurance.


DIED TODAY: at  Bukovina (now split between Romania and Ukraine) – Ferenc Istvan Dénes Gyula Békássy, Cambridge graduate, Hungarian bi-lingual poet and Imperial Hussar. Killed in action, aged 22.



Eastern Front: Austro-Hungarian forces recapture the city of Lemberg (Lwow/ Lviv) from the Russians.


Africa: On the shores of Lake Victoria in German East Africa, the British 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers and others have launched an amphibious attack on Bukoba (“The Battle of Bukoba”) with the objective to destroy the German wireless station.


18th April 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: at Miedzybrodzie, Cracow, Austria-Hungary (now in Poland) – Józef Karol Czulak: Cavalry Officer in Poland; prisoner of war in Romania; fugitive in Yugoslavia; resistance fighter in Italy and France; exile in England; Army Captain in Scotland; liberator in France; undergraduate and research bacteriologist in England; and migrant and cheese scientist in Australia, where he won the Australian Society of Dairy Technology’s gold medal in 1960.



War from the air: French Pilot “Roland Garros is forced down behind German lines and taken prisoner. His plane is recovered intact by the Germans, which results in a technological leap forward for aerial warfare.”


2nd April, 1915 (Good Friday)

BORN TODAY: Gică Petrescu, “prolific Romanian folk music composer and performer.” [Wikipedia].



Society and Culture: In common with service colleagues and many, many others today, Private George Potter Bagshaw and his colleagues in the Derbyshire Territorials, currently stationed in Northern France, attend an early morning Good Friday service.


The (Egyptian) Home Front: At what became known as the “Battle of Wazzir” in Cairo a large body of (over 2000) mainly Australian and New Zealand troops participate in a drunken riot  in an area known as “Haret el Wasser, an area of Cairo where there were a large number of brothels and drinking establishments”. The troops are reported “to have had an assortment of complaints, including recent price increases, poor quality drinks, and concerns about the spread of venereal disease.” [Wikipedia]



17th January 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: (only in the USA) – Vincent Kosuga – American onion farmer “best known for manipulating the onion futures market. Though he made millions of dollars on commodity trading, his actions were highly controversial and attracted government scrutiny. This scrutiny led to the passing of the Onion Future Act, which banned the trading of futures contracts  on onions.” [Wikipedia]



In the East: Russia occupies the historic region of Bukovina (now divided between Ukraine and Romania), and also Western Ukraine.




Mining accidents: At the village of Halmer End, in England’s North Staffordshire coal-fields, a coal gas explosion kills 9 miners, including Arthur Shufflebottom, aged just 16.


Society and culture: in the USA, the radical labour organizer and anarchist Lucy Parsons lead a hunger march in Chicago.


10th October 1914 (Saturday)

DIED TODAY: Prince Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, born in 1839 to Prince Karl Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Princess Josephine Friederike Luise of Baden, Prussian military officer and later elected “Domnitor” (Ruling Prince) of Romania, where later still he proclaimed himself King (Carol I, but not the the last). Founder of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty which survived until Romania was declared a Republic in 1947. He is succeeded today by his nephew, King Ferdinand 1 (and, to date, the last).


2nd October 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Kolozsvár, Austria-Hungary (now Cluj-Napoca, in Romania) – Endre Senkálszky, ethnic Hungarian actor and director who died in his home-town in January 2014, aged 99.



Society and Culture: Despite the predictions of a well known religious sect, the world did not end today.



21st July 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Blois, France – Philippe Ariès, French medievalist and social historian of the family.


World Affairs: In a telegram to the German Kaiser, his ambassador in Constantinople (Istanbul) expresses confidence that Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey will join the Triple Alliance of Austria-Hungary, Germany and Italy if the Austrians decide to administer a severe lesson to Serbia.  The Kaiser annotates the telegram: “We shall remind these gentlemen of this at the right moment”


Ireland: Unionist (pro-British) and Nationalist (anti-British) leaders are brought together for the “Buckingham Palace Conference on Ireland”. It is the first such organised attempt to find a solution to the deadlock over the Northern Counties. After one day, the British Prime Minister writes privately: “I have rarely felt more helpless in any particular affair, an impasse with unspeakable consequences, upon a matter which to English eyes seems inconceivably small and to Irish eyes immeasurably big.” The conference breaks up after three days without agreement. [Wikipedia]


Migration: In Vancouver, British Columbia, where the SS Kamagata Maru carrying Indian migrants is resisting efforts to send her away, HMCS Rainbow arrives and trains her six inch guns on the recalcitrant ship to show that the Canadian authorities are serious in their intentions NOT to welcome the migrants.


Sport: In South America, the soccer team from Exeter, in England’s West Country, which has been touring South America, loses 2-0 in a match against Brazil “in what became known as the Brazilian national team’s first fixture’ [Western Morning News]. A centenary rematch is organised, which features the same kit and the original ball…




15th June 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Râmnicu Sărat, Romania – Saul Steingerg: philosophy student in Bucharest; architecture student in Milan; emigree from Mussolini’s anti-semitic laws; refugee in the Dominican Republic; sponsored entrant to the US for his satirical cartoons for the “New Yorker”; military intelligence officer in China, North Africa and Italy; US artist and cartoonist; “a writer who draws“. [Wikipedia].


World Affairs: In Sofia, the French Ambassador to Bulgaria reports of the deep unease caused for the Bulgarian public by the Russian Tsar’s visit to Romania, a neighbour so aggressive towards Bulgaria in the recent (Second) Balkan War.


Arts and Literature: In London, the publishing house of Grant Richards publishes James Joyce’s “The Dubliners”. Joyce is currently living in Trieste, Austria-Hungary’s main seaport, on the Adriatic. By the end of the year only 379 copies of “The Dubliners” have been sold.


14th June 1914 (Sunday)


~ in Korostienie in the Zhitomir region, Ukraine, Imperial Russia – Piotr Kozachenko, graduate of the Odessa Military Air College (1936) who fought with the Chinese forces against the Japanese in 1937 and for the Soviet Union against Finland in the Winter War in 1939-1940. On the first day of the Great Patriotic War against Germany (in 1941) he claimed his first successes against German aircraft, and in 1942 was fighting on the North Caucasus front. After receiving the Golden Star of the Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin in May 1943 he began operating over the Crimea area on the 2nd Ukrainian Front. He died during a mission over Danzig, Germany (now Gdansk in Poland) in March 1945, aged 30.


~ in Nagutskaya, in the Caucasus region of  Imperial Russia, Yuri Andropov: orphan; loader; telegraph clerk; sailor on the Volga; young communist; local and then national activist; Soviet Ambassador to Budapest during the Hungarian uprising; Chairman of the KGB; Politburo member; interrogator; invader of Afghanistan; and General Secretaty of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. {Wikipedia].


World Affairs: Russian Tsar Nicholas II, who has been taking a holiday in Russian Crimea, visits the Romanian King, by sea, in Constanta, Romania, along with the Russian foreign Minister, Sazonov. On the agenda is the tenuous balance of power in the Balkan’s in recent years, where  Ottomans, Habsurgs, Russians and Italians have been vying for position.


Extreme Weather: In South West London, England a freak thunderstorm causes death and flooding. Among the dead are three young children sheltering under a lightning struck tree in an area known as “The Frying Pan” on Wandsworth Common.


Arts and Literature: Publisher A.C MClurg of Chicago publishes the first book edition of Edgar Rice Burrough’s “Tarzan of the Apes”


1st May 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Broken Hill, New South Wales – Colin Andrew Huddleston, Australia’s “most well known [square dance] caller”.


World Affairs 

~ In China, dictator Yuan Shikai convenes a body of 66 men from his cabinet who produce a “constitutional compact” that effectively replaces China’s provisional constitution.


~ In Bucharest, on International Labour Day, Romanian socialists march, and then “feast” (picnic?).


Science and technology: The UK’s official meteorological service officially adopts metric measurement of rainfall – a change which has not prevented routine re-conversion back to inches for the British public benefit for the last 100 years!


Exploration: On the River of Doubt in Amazonia, Colonel Theodore Roosevelt records the life threatening, life claiming, and  historic achievements of the party’s efforts to map over 1500 kilometres of previously unmapped waterways.