6th September 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: Little Willie – the world’s first tank.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-tank-produced

Society and culture: Scotland appoints Ms Emily Miller as its first ever policewoman.

http://www.chrislongmuir.co.uk/index.php/my-blog/35-first-policewoman-in-scotland-100-years-ago

War!

The Balkans: Bulgaria signs a military agreement with Germany agreeing to enter on the side of the Central Powers. In return for sending forces against Serbia and Montenegro (thereby re-opening the unresolved business of the recent Second Balkan War), Bulgaria is promised large parts of Macedonia, a sea port on the Adriatic and territorial concessions in European Turkey. [Burg & Purcell: “Almanac of World War 1”]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgaria%E2%80%93Germany_treaty_(1915)

4th March, 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: The Australian 4th Light Horse Brigade: “Shipped to Egypt without horses where it was broken up 26 August 1915″. [http://www.diggerhistory.info/].

http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-a-l-horse/4th_lh_bde.htm

War!

Counting chickens: The Allied “Triple Entente” nations – Russia, France and Britain – begin secret talks on how to divide up the lands of the Ottoman Empire (The “Constantinople Agreement”, agreed two weeks from today on 18th March 1915). In the event, the agreement is never implemented because: firstly, the British and French campaign in the Dardanelles fails; and secondly, the Russian empire collapses (temporarily at least) with the Bolshevik revolution in 1917, which takes Russia out the war (and the subsequent peace) completely.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinople_Agreement

In the Dardanelles: HMS Agamemnon spends the day with its 9.2 inch Mk XI guns trained relentlessly on the Turkish forts at Sedd el Bahr (“Walls of the Sea”).

Across Turkey’s north west frontier, in Bulgaria (its recent foe in the second Balkan War): The Bulgarian Armenian Committee telegraphs to London confirming a force of 20.000 Armenian Volunteers who want to fight against the Turks and await British assistance to assist them to Iskenderun province (the ancient greek city of Alexandretta on the borders of Turkey and what is now Syria).

http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=80c_1416808936

Peace:

Life on the land: In Connecticut, USA – farmer Frank Seger records his day in his diary:

“8 Above” [that is,  8 Fahreneit – well below freezing]

“Clear & cold as Hell and Damnation. Began to warm up after noon. Heman took the milk. Lewis dug load of dirt down in the little meadow for box stall was 8 inches of frost. Cleaned out barn to load of munare [sic] up to Comestocks. Boys cut some stalks. I went up and helped Rubin Wolf saw down trees.”

http://www.onsegermountain.org/seger/march1915.html

15th June 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Râmnicu Sărat, Romania – Saul Steingerg: philosophy student in Bucharest; architecture student in Milan; emigree from Mussolini’s anti-semitic laws; refugee in the Dominican Republic; sponsored entrant to the US for his satirical cartoons for the “New Yorker”; military intelligence officer in China, North Africa and Italy; US artist and cartoonist; “a writer who draws“. [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saul_Steinberg

World Affairs: In Sofia, the French Ambassador to Bulgaria reports of the deep unease caused for the Bulgarian public by the Russian Tsar’s visit to Romania, a neighbour so aggressive towards Bulgaria in the recent (Second) Balkan War.

Click to access ROMANIA-AND-THE-TRIPLE-ENTENTE.pdf

Arts and Literature: In London, the publishing house of Grant Richards publishes James Joyce’s “The Dubliners”. Joyce is currently living in Trieste, Austria-Hungary’s main seaport, on the Adriatic. By the end of the year only 379 copies of “The Dubliners” have been sold.

http://jamesjoyce.ie/day-4-march/

25th March 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: Among the ashes of two Balkan Wars, In Salonica,  (until just before that time, in the Ottoman province of Macedonia, but just recently becoming Thessaloniki in newly expansionist Greece) – Aris Football Club, named after the God of War.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aris_F.C._(Thessaloniki)

~ Also, in Cresco. Iowa – Norman  Borlaug, “The Man Who Saved a Billion Lives”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Borlaug

Click to access Norman_E._Borlaug.pdf

17th February 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Newcastle, northern England – George Mathwin Forrester – RAF Hurricane Pilot who died during the Battle of Britain in July 1940, aged 26.

http://www.bbm.org.uk/Forrester.htm

Arms Race: In the British Parliament, the First Lord of the Admiralty (Winston Churchill) declines to answer a question from a member about comments in the German Parliament regarding proposals for mutual reductions in naval construction.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1914/feb/17/germany-and-great-britain#S5CV0058P0_19140217_CWA_44

World Affairs: Hjalmar Hammarskjöld replaces Karl Albert Staaf as Prime Minister of Sweden.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hjalmar_Hammarskj%C3%B6ld

Aftermath of the Second Balkan War: In Northern Epirus (previously part of the Ottoman Empire, but recently granted to newly formed Albania under the Protocol of Florence), Greek forces lead an armed rebellion to declare the Independence of Norther Epirus from the Albanians.

http://www.sfeva.gr/76F95304.en.aspx

Society and Culture: The National Opera Company of Canada collapses after just one season amid accusations and scandal.

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/national-opera-company-of-canada-emc/

Science and technology: the New York “American” magazine reports on US senate intentions for formally inquire into the use of babies and infants for vivisection experiments.

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=6F2lmCfiy8gC&pg=PA170&lpg=PA170&dq=17th+february+1914&source=bl&ots=wYlHSJwTQV&sig=YNFv7nouWfxCJuTPay_0hBaX1VM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ONj1UoWuFsOrhQfQ34DQCw&ved=0CCkQ6AEwADgU#v=onepage&q=17th%20february%201914&f=false

Shipwrecks: In Massachusetts, USA – the Italian cargo ship “Castagna”, laden with guano from Uruguay, runs aground on Cape Cod. Five of the thirteen crew perish of cold before lifesavers are able to reach them.

Click to access CAHOONSHOLLOW.pdf

17th December 1913 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in San Diego, California – Burton “Butch” Baskin, co-founder of the ice-cream empire, Baskin-Robbins, and midwife to the American fast food franchising business.

http://www.nndb.com/people/979/000178445/

World Affairs: Under the terms of the Treaty of London, signed in May, the Protocol of Florence delineates the boundaries of the newly independent state of Albania, “permanently” denying Serbia access to the Adriatic coastline (at least until it later “merged” with Montenegro) and ceding the Greek region of Northern Epirus to Albania,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_London_(1913)

Early flight – Today is the tenth anniversary of the Wright Brothers’ first successful flights, in the Kill Devil Hills of North Carolina.

http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/progress/jb_progress_flight_1.html

11th November 1913 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Skipton, Yorkshire, England, of Scottish parents – Iain Norman McLeod, Cambridge educated Royal Fusilier and professional bridge player who became (from 1959 to 1961) one of Britain’s last Colonial Secretaries (the Government minister responsible for the Colonies), overseeing the decolonisation of Nigeria, British Somaliland, Tanganyika, Sierra Leone, Kuwait and British Cameroon, before moving on to become Chancellor of the Exchequer (Finance Minister) in 1970, a post in which he died from a heart-attack almost immediately after taking office. Perhaps he had seen the writing on the wall at Number 11 Downing Street.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iain_Macleod

World Affairs – in Athens, Greece, the governments of Greece and Turkey sign a peace treaty which finally brings to an end the Second Balkan war, restores diplomatic relations and attempts to resolve some of the issues of nationality facing the large numbers of muslim turks in Greece and orthodox greeks in European Turkey and Turkish Asia Minor (Anatolia).

http://www.pollitecon.com/html/treaties/The_Treaty_Of_Peace_Between_Turkey_And_Greece.htm

Labour Relations: In Wellington, New Zealand, George Adkin seems to be enjoying his strike breaking duties. He records in his dairy:

“…Had hot pies + cakes en route.  City very quiet + I think our job was to keep the strikers off the Chinamen who were buying fruit from the steamers discharging.  At 2 pm fed + watered horses + had an excellent meal in a building off Waterloo Quay provided by some very nice ladies belonging to Red Cross Society.  Spent rest of afternoon reading, resting + smoking (free cigarettes + fruit provided by local shopkeepers)…Left for camp soon after 5 pm – refreshing shower-bath before tea.  At 7 pm foot parade + roll-call in Buckle St.  At 8 at kinomataograph entertainment was given in Garrison interspersed by songs + other items by Wellington gentlemen.” [Museum of New Zealand].

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/theme.aspx?irn=4450

18th October 1913 (Saturday)

 

BORN TODAY: in Nashwauk, Itasca County, Minnesota – Robert R Gilruth, a boy who built rubber-band powered toy airplanes before studying under Jean Felix Piccard at the University of Minnesota, later becoming “godfather to the astronauts”.

http://www.nndb.com/people/849/000169342/

World Affairs: exactly one year after the end of the Italo-Turkish War, the two countries sign the Treaty of Lausanne which settles their respective powers in Libya, in return for which Italy returns the Island of Rhodes and other Aegean Islands to Turkish control.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italo-Turkish_War

The Austro-Hungarian Government sends an utlimatum to Serbia  requiring her to withdraw all Serbian troops from Albanian territory within eight days.

The “Spectator” (newspaper) assesses the situation as follows:

“The action of Austria-Hungary was unexpected, as the other members of the Triple Alliance had shown no signs of putting pressure on Serbia, and independent action by Austria- Hungary obviously involved many risks. For example, if it were necessary for Austria-Hungary to occupy the north of Albania Italy would certainly plant her foot in the south. But this is one of the things which Austria-Hungary particularly wants to prevent. She would never be happy with Italy at Avlona. Fortunately all anxiety was very soon ended, as the Serbian Government announced on Monday that it had already ordered the evacuation of Albania in accordance with the Austrian demand. No one has any stomach for serious fighting just now in the Balkans. Events pass quietly which a year ago would have shaken Europe from end to end” [Spectator – 25th October 1913].

http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/25th-october-1913/2/at-the-end-of-last-week-the-austro-hungarian-gover

18th September 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: RAF Halton, the air force base near Wendover in Buckinghamshire, England.

http://www.raf.mod.uk/rafhalton/publicinfo/centenaryyouthrugbyhistory.cfm

~ Also, in Chatham Islands in the South Pacific, Chatham Island Radio.

http://maritimeradio.org/zlc/

World Affairs (Second Balkan War): In Constantinople, representatives of Bulgaria and Turkey agree the delineation of the new Thracian border separating the two countries. [The Spectator, 20th September 1913]

http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/20th-september-1913/2/on-thursday-at-constantinople-articles-of-agreemen

Law, order and labour relations:

~ In the Colorado coalfields, at the Ludlow tented camp of striking miners evicted from their homes, company guard who has raped a number of miners’ wives, is shot dead.

http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/sr222/newsing.htm

~ In Ireland 300 striking farm workers from Swords, North of Dublin, march into Dublin, accompanied by the Swords pipe and drum band, to take part in labour demonstrations.

“The principal rallying-ground for the Larkinites” – The Swords Riot of 1913

Society and culture: In Heidelberg, Germany Princess Sophie Augustine Ida Karoline Pauline Agnes Elisabeth Ernestine von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, aged 25,  shoots herself after her family refuse to allow her to marry the son of a local banker.

Music and entertainment: On Broadway, the Al Jolson musical “The Honeymoon Express” begins an eight month tour, including the songs: :The Spaniard That Blighted My Life”;  “You Made Me Love You”; and  “Who Paid the Rent for Mrs Rip Van Winkle ?”.

http://jolson.jimdo.com/theatre/broadway-shows/the-honeymoon-express/

3rd September 1913 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Hot Springs, Arkansas – Alan Walbridge Ladd, aka the cowboy “Shane”

http://www.nndb.com/people/517/000031424/

World Affairs

 

~ The Zionist Congress meets in Vienna to discuss its aim to colonise Palestine

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/59104201

~ Negotiations begin between Turkey and Bulgaria which will eventually (late September) lead to the Treaty of Constantinople, whereby Turkey regains Adrianople (Edirne), its ancient capital taken by the Bulgarians earlier in the year.

https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/boshtml/bos151.htm

Arms Race: the Dreadnought battleship “Reshadieh “, built by the Vickers Company in Britain as part of an order for the Ottoman Navy,  is launched by the daughter of the Turkish Ambassador to Britain, using rose-water instead of the customary champagne. She (the battleship, that is) will be “requisitioned” (confiscated from the Turks while still in final fit out in Britain) by the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill in August 1914, and renamed HMS Erin, causing a diplomatic furore, indignation in Istanbul, and increasing the likelihood that Turkey enters WW1 on the side of the Central Powers.

http://www.dreadnoughtproject.org/tfs/index.php/H.M.S._Erin_(1913)

Empire: In a remote part of the British East Africa “Protectorate” (Northern Kenya) where British forces are conducting a continuing campaign against desert raiders and intruders from across the Abyssinian border, Lieutenant William Lloyd-Jones leads a small party which attacks and kills a party of raiders, and sustains serious injuries which require him to be stretchered back to Nairobi, a journey taking over 6 weeks. Later he is awarded the “last Distinguished Service Order to be awarded before the Great War broke out”.

http://www.kaiserscross.com/188001/323201.html

Exploration: In the Arctic Circle, the archipelago named “Emperor Nicholas II Land” (now Severnaya Zemlya) is discovered, the last archipelago (so far) to be discovered anywhere on the planet.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severnaya_Zemlya