BORN TODAY: in Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad – Claudia Vera Cumberbatch, later Claudia Jones, political activist and black nationalist deported from the USA during the McCarthy era; asylum seeker in 1950s Britain; founder of the “West Indian Gazette”; and considered to be the “Mother of Notting Hill Carnival”.
Eastern Front: German troops capture Plozk on the Vistula River [Burg & Purcell].
Balkan Front: In Rome, Sidney Sonnino, the Italian foreign minister, officially informs the Austro-Hungarian government in Vienna that its military action in the Balkans has violated the “Triple Alliance” between Italy, Austria and Germany. Although Italy is still officially a neutral state in the war this declaration is effectively an invitation for the Triple Entente (France, Russia and Britain) to come up up with a better offer to buy Italy’s support against the Triple Alliance. [Mark Thompson: “The White War – Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919″].
Colonial unrest: In Singapore, Indian soldiers mutiny in response to rumours that they are to be sent to Turkey to fight against fellow muslims (the Singapore or “Sepoy” mutiny).