17th August 1915 (Tuesday)

DIED TODAY: Leo Frank, factory superintendant convicted in 1913 of the murder of an employee, Mary Phagan, aged 13. Sentenced to death by hanging in 1913, later commuted to life imprisonment. Abducted from prison on 16th August 1915, and lynched today, by the “Knights of Mary Phagan”, a vigilante group specifically formed for the abduction and lynching. A superior court judge is photographed among the spectators.

“Leo Frank was posthumously pardoned in 1986 by the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles , which said that it was done without attempting to address the question of guilt or innocence. The consensus of researchers on the subject is that Frank was wrongly convicted”. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Frank

Extreme Weather: Galveston, Texas is rocked by a category 4 hurricane, with winds of 135mph. Port Arthur is flooded.

http://antonk.com/august-in-history/august-17-on-this-day-in-history-2/

http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth221876/

War!

War at Sea: The German submarine U-38 sinks 10 vessels, 9 British and 1 Spanish, in a single day, on its voyage to become the third most successful U-boat of the first world war.

https://www.google.co.uk/?gws_rd=ssl#q=17th+august+1915&start=10

 

15th May 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in London – Hilda Schwarz (later Bernstein), journalist, author, artist, activist, communist and exile.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hilda_Bernstein

War!

The Dardanelles: Senior British Admiral Sir John Fisher resigns in protest at what he perceives to be Churchill’s misplaced obsession with forcing the Dardanelles, a strategy which has so far yielded nothing but many thousands of deaths [Burg & Purcell].

The Western Front: After a 60 hour bombardment by 433 artillery pieces   firing about 100,000 shells, British General Sir Douglas Haig launches his British, Indian and Canadian  army against the German defences on the first day of the Battle of Festubert.  After 10 days and over 20,000 casualities the Allies will have gained approximately 3 kilometres. Overall losses for the Second Battle of Artois (of which this forms part) are in the order of 200,000 German, French, British, Indian and Canadian men, including over 100,000 Frenchmen [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Festubert

Revolution!

The Reuters News Agency files unconfirmed reports (from the Spanish government) of a revolutionary coup in Portugal, where all communications (railway, telegraph etc) have been cut and there are (unfounded) rumours that the ex-Premier, Afonso Costa, has been assassinated.

http://www.cphrc.org/index.php/documents/firstrepublic/475-1915-05-15-commune-in-portugal

30th March 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Barcelona – Francisco Sabaté Llopart (known as ‘El Quico’), Spanish resistance fighter, French resistance fighter, anti-Franco rebel and bandit, Spanish “public enemy No 1”, “Anarquista”. Shot and killed by the Spanish civil guard in January 1960, aged 44.

https://libcom.org/history/articles/1915-1960-francisco-sabate-llopart

War!

The Home Front: In Britain, “after Lloyd George [the ‘Chancellor of the Exchequer’ or Finance Minister] denounces drinking as an enemy of the war effort, George V declares the royal household’s willingness to abstain from consumption of alcoholic beverages for the duration of the war” [Burg & Purcell].

29th October 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Oreshak in the Balkan mountains in Bulgaria – Marin Naydenov Minkov, later better known as Patriarch Maxim, the head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church from 1971 until his death in 2012.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxim_of_Bulgaria

War!

War at Sea: In Odessa on the Black Sea in Russia (now in Ukraine), the former German battleship and cruiser – Geoben and Breslau – now flying Turkish flags, stage a surprise attack, sinking the Russian gunboat Donetz, and also complete raids on the coastal cities of Sevastapol and Novorossiysk, causing significant damage.  Officially Turkey is still a neutral country, because there has been no previous declaration of war.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pursuit_of_Goeben_and_Breslau

Society and Culture: In London, “Admiral His Serene Highness” Prince Louis of Battenberg, Austrian by birth, is forced to resign as Britain’s “First Sea Lord” (Chief of Naval Staff). The papers report that “though he is closely connected by birth or marriage with most of the great reigning houses of Europe – German, Russian, Spanish and Italian – he has won his present rank by ability, not by any exercise of influence”.

http://blog.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk/2013/10/28/prince-louis-alexander-mountbatten/

 

13th July, 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY:

~ In Leuk, Switzerland – Franz Xaver Baron von Werra, fighter pilot and flying ace shot down and captured over Britain. Incarcerated in a Canadian POW camp, and “generally regarded as the only Axis POW  to succeed in escaping from a Canadian prisoner of war camp and returning to Germany”.  He arrived back in Germany in 1941, via the US, Mexico, South America and Spain. [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franz_von_Werra

~ In Surrey, England – Squadron Leader Wilfrid Thomas Page, mentioned in despatches, June 1942, shot down and killed in the English Channel, November 1943.

http://www.bbm.org.uk/PageWT.htm

World Affairs:  From Sarajevo, the Austrian investigators of the Archduke’s assassination report that “there is nothing to prove or even to suppose that the Serbian government is accessory to the inducement for the crime, its preparations, or the furnishing of weapons. On the contrary, there are reasons to believe that this is altogether out of the question” [Fromkin – “Europe’s Last Summer – Why the World went to War in 1914].

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Europes-Last-Summer-World-Went-ebook/dp/B0031RS3G2/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1403336625&sr=1-1&keywords=Fromkin

Crime: In the village of Camerata Cornello in Northern Italy,  56 year old Simone Pianetti shoots and kills seven people who have ruined his life and reputation, including the town clerk, the priest and the doctor. He escapes to the mountains, and is never brought to justice.

http://www.italianarea.it/opera.php?w=1367934962-15.JPG&artista=GICC&let=

Society and culture: In London, at the Kensington Registrar’s office, Novelist D.H.Lawrence marries Frieda Weekley (nee von Richthofen), the former wife of his erstwhile modern languages professor at University College, Nottingham.

http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/dhlawrence/study-materials/biography/anewlife.aspx

~ In Milwaukee, Senators are busy investigating the causes of prostitution in Wisconsin (“Prostitutes testimony”),  and “committee staff questioned several madams and prostitutes about how they got into ‘the sporting life’ and what caused men and women to engage in it”

http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/search.asp?id=1568

3rd June 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: on Menorca, in the Balearic Islands – Ignacio Ponseti: son of a watchmaker; graduate of Barcelona University; medical officer for the Spanish loyalists; refugee from the Spanish Civil War; family doctor in Mexico; orthopedic specialist in Iowa; developer of the Ponseti technique for correcting congenital clubfoot;  and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. The Ponseti International Association, the global leader in training and educating healthcare providers on the treatment for congenital clubfoot, is named in his honour.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignacio_Ponseti

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ponseti_Method

http://www.ponseti.info/

Society and culture: Cecil Sharp, the English folk song collector, “collects” the sailors sea shanty “Noah’s Ark Shanty” from Captain Hole of Wachet, in Somerset.

http://www.traditionalmusic.co.uk/folk-song-lyrics/Noahs_Ark_Shanty.htm

Aristocracy: In Paris, Henry Sackville-West, neglected scion of an aristocratic English family, shoots himself minutes after the death of his wife.

In the small hours of the morning of 3 June 1914, a woman and her husband were found dead in a sparsely furnished apartment in Paris. It was only when the identity of the couple was revealed in the English press a fortnight later that the full story emerged. The man, Henry Sackville-West, had shot himself minutes after the death of his wife from cancer; but Henry’s suicidal despair had been driven equally by the failure of his claim to be the legitimate son of Lord Sackville and heir to Knole. The Disinherited reveals the secrets and lies at the heart of an English dynasty, unravelling the parallel lives of Henry’s four illegitimate siblings: in particular his older sister, Victoria, who on becoming Lady Sackville and mistress of Knole, by marriage, consigned her brothers and sisters to lives of poverty and disappointment”

[Bloomsbury publishing – “The Disinherited” by Robert Sackville-West]

“Brilliantly exposes the shadowy side of the Victorian aristocracy and the horrors of life on the wrong side of the blanket . . . A marvellous book – a gripping story, superbly researched and related with grace and humour in elegant, enjoyable prose.”[The Literary Review].

http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/the-disinherited-9781408843413/#sthash.QxF5947N.dpuf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knole_House

Philanthropy: The Bishop of Chester (UK) performs the dedication ceremony for the new Emmeline Winstanley Home For Boys in Knutsford. The home is a gift from an anonymous donor. Later in this same year it will be converted to house the sons of soldiers and sailors killed during the war.

http://www.hiddenlives.org.uk/homes/KNUTS01.html

Journalism and letters: Mildred Aldrich, Bostonian teacher and journalist who, after sixteen years working as a journalist and translator in Paris, has recently moved to Huiry, to a house on a hillside overlooking the Marne Valley, writes the first of her letters which will later be published collectively as “A Hilltop on the Marne”, recording a civilian’s account of life “On the Edge of the War Zone”

http://spartacus-educational.com/Waldrich.htm

 

8th March 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Indianapolis, Indiana – Priscilla Shortridge: daughter of Elmer and Minnie; in due course a “statuesque brunette”; later Miss Miami Beach; and later still Mrs Lawson. Then she became Princess Aura, daughter of Ming the Merciless, before settling for “Mrs Curtis”. Only in Hollywood…

http://flashgordon.ws/princess_aura.htm

Women’s suffrage: International Women’s Day, a movement which has been growing for several years, takes place for the first time on 8th March, on which day it will, in future, settle. This year, the event in Germany (“Frauen-Tag”) is dedicated to women’s right to vote, which will not finally be won for another 4 years.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Women’s_Day

http://www.bridgemanart.com/en-GB/asset/218578/staedler-karl-maria-fl-1914/poster-demanding-the-right-of-women-to-vote-published-for-frauen-tag-8th-march-1914-colour-litho

Spanish suffrage: Spain holds a General election. Well, sort of…

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_general_election,_1914