11th November 1913 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Skipton, Yorkshire, England, of Scottish parents – Iain Norman McLeod, Cambridge educated Royal Fusilier and professional bridge player who became (from 1959 to 1961) one of Britain’s last Colonial Secretaries (the Government minister responsible for the Colonies), overseeing the decolonisation of Nigeria, British Somaliland, Tanganyika, Sierra Leone, Kuwait and British Cameroon, before moving on to become Chancellor of the Exchequer (Finance Minister) in 1970, a post in which he died from a heart-attack almost immediately after taking office. Perhaps he had seen the writing on the wall at Number 11 Downing Street.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iain_Macleod

World Affairs – in Athens, Greece, the governments of Greece and Turkey sign a peace treaty which finally brings to an end the Second Balkan war, restores diplomatic relations and attempts to resolve some of the issues of nationality facing the large numbers of muslim turks in Greece and orthodox greeks in European Turkey and Turkish Asia Minor (Anatolia).

http://www.pollitecon.com/html/treaties/The_Treaty_Of_Peace_Between_Turkey_And_Greece.htm

Labour Relations: In Wellington, New Zealand, George Adkin seems to be enjoying his strike breaking duties. He records in his dairy:

“…Had hot pies + cakes en route.  City very quiet + I think our job was to keep the strikers off the Chinamen who were buying fruit from the steamers discharging.  At 2 pm fed + watered horses + had an excellent meal in a building off Waterloo Quay provided by some very nice ladies belonging to Red Cross Society.  Spent rest of afternoon reading, resting + smoking (free cigarettes + fruit provided by local shopkeepers)…Left for camp soon after 5 pm – refreshing shower-bath before tea.  At 7 pm foot parade + roll-call in Buckle St.  At 8 at kinomataograph entertainment was given in Garrison interspersed by songs + other items by Wellington gentlemen.” [Museum of New Zealand].

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/theme.aspx?irn=4450

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18th September 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: RAF Halton, the air force base near Wendover in Buckinghamshire, England.

http://www.raf.mod.uk/rafhalton/publicinfo/centenaryyouthrugbyhistory.cfm

~ Also, in Chatham Islands in the South Pacific, Chatham Island Radio.

http://maritimeradio.org/zlc/

World Affairs (Second Balkan War): In Constantinople, representatives of Bulgaria and Turkey agree the delineation of the new Thracian border separating the two countries. [The Spectator, 20th September 1913]

http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/20th-september-1913/2/on-thursday-at-constantinople-articles-of-agreemen

Law, order and labour relations:

~ In the Colorado coalfields, at the Ludlow tented camp of striking miners evicted from their homes, company guard who has raped a number of miners’ wives, is shot dead.

http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/sr222/newsing.htm

~ In Ireland 300 striking farm workers from Swords, North of Dublin, march into Dublin, accompanied by the Swords pipe and drum band, to take part in labour demonstrations.

“The principal rallying-ground for the Larkinites” – The Swords Riot of 1913

Society and culture: In Heidelberg, Germany Princess Sophie Augustine Ida Karoline Pauline Agnes Elisabeth Ernestine von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, aged 25,  shoots herself after her family refuse to allow her to marry the son of a local banker.

Music and entertainment: On Broadway, the Al Jolson musical “The Honeymoon Express” begins an eight month tour, including the songs: :The Spaniard That Blighted My Life”;  “You Made Me Love You”; and  “Who Paid the Rent for Mrs Rip Van Winkle ?”.

http://jolson.jimdo.com/theatre/broadway-shows/the-honeymoon-express/

3rd September 1913 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Hot Springs, Arkansas – Alan Walbridge Ladd, aka the cowboy “Shane”

http://www.nndb.com/people/517/000031424/

World Affairs

 

~ The Zionist Congress meets in Vienna to discuss its aim to colonise Palestine

http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/59104201

~ Negotiations begin between Turkey and Bulgaria which will eventually (late September) lead to the Treaty of Constantinople, whereby Turkey regains Adrianople (Edirne), its ancient capital taken by the Bulgarians earlier in the year.

https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/boshtml/bos151.htm

Arms Race: the Dreadnought battleship “Reshadieh “, built by the Vickers Company in Britain as part of an order for the Ottoman Navy,  is launched by the daughter of the Turkish Ambassador to Britain, using rose-water instead of the customary champagne. She (the battleship, that is) will be “requisitioned” (confiscated from the Turks while still in final fit out in Britain) by the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill in August 1914, and renamed HMS Erin, causing a diplomatic furore, indignation in Istanbul, and increasing the likelihood that Turkey enters WW1 on the side of the Central Powers.

http://www.dreadnoughtproject.org/tfs/index.php/H.M.S._Erin_(1913)

Empire: In a remote part of the British East Africa “Protectorate” (Northern Kenya) where British forces are conducting a continuing campaign against desert raiders and intruders from across the Abyssinian border, Lieutenant William Lloyd-Jones leads a small party which attacks and kills a party of raiders, and sustains serious injuries which require him to be stretchered back to Nairobi, a journey taking over 6 weeks. Later he is awarded the “last Distinguished Service Order to be awarded before the Great War broke out”.

http://www.kaiserscross.com/188001/323201.html

Exploration: In the Arctic Circle, the archipelago named “Emperor Nicholas II Land” (now Severnaya Zemlya) is discovered, the last archipelago (so far) to be discovered anywhere on the planet.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severnaya_Zemlya

14th July 1913 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Omaha Nebraska – Leslie Lynch King, Jr, destined to become the 38th President of the USA from 1974 to 1977. After his parents divorced later in 1913 his mother married (in 1916) Gerald Rudolff Ford and young Leslie King was renamed Gerald Rudolff Ford, Jr.

Second Balkan War: Greek forces reclaim the city of Komotini in Western Thrace from the Bulgarians.

Royal Lancastrian Progress: On the last day of their royal tour, King George V and Queen Mary visit Manchester and Salford. Manchester Corporation consider the visit to be so  important that they persuade the British government to declare today a public holiday in Manchester and Salford.

Accidents: Gwendoline Hopton – talented artist in the St Ives artistic community, dies after sustaining a fractured skull in a collision between her bicycle and a carriage in Gloucestershire.

12th July 1913 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: In Helsinki, Finland – Reino (“Repe”) Helismaa, singer-songwriter, musician and scriptwriter

World Affairs: The Jianxi province of central China declares its independence from the national chinese government.

Second Balkan War: Turkey becomes the fourth nation to take up arms in response to the Bulgarian attack on Serbia and Greece, marching into Thrace to reclaim lands lost during the First Balkan War.

Women’s Suffrage: Suffragette “Pilgrims” marching from Carlisle to London arrive in Birmingham.

Accidents: In Colchester, UK – 3 die and 16 are injured in a rail accident (collision and derailment).

Royal Lancastrian Progress: On the sixth day of their royal tour, King George V and Queen Mary visit Oldham.

1st July 1913 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY – the German Naval Air Arm and the Dutch Army Aviation Department

At Puck air-station north of Gdansk (then in German West Prussia, now in Poland) Germany establishes its Naval Air Arm, the Marineflieger-Abteilung.

On the same day, at Soesterberg airfield in the province of Utrecht, the Netherlands establishes the aviation department of the Dutch Army, the Luchtvaartafdeling.

Second Balkan War: Serbia and Greece declare war on Bulgaria. The Greek army “liberates” the town of Drama from the Bulgarians.

Empire: in the British “Protectorate” of Zanzibar, control passes from the Foreign Office (in London) to the Colonial Office (in London).

Extreme Weather: Britain is suffering from a heat wave. The London “Telegraph” (newspaper) shows a photograph of gentlemen in suits, waistcoats and high winged collars and ties sitting in the sunshine with their heads shaded by newspapers.

Fashion: the new edition of “Vogue” carries a front page picture of the “Lampshade Dress”, later described as a “turning point” in the history of fashion.

Transportation: In the USA, “a group of automobile enthusiasts and industry officials establish the Lincoln Highway Association (LHA) ‘to procure the establishment of a continuous improved highway from the Atlantic to the Pacific, open to lawful traffic of all description without toll charges’. ”

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/lincoln.cfm

30th June 1913 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Bogota, Colombia – Alfonso López Michelsen, son of a future two times President of Colombia (Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo 1934-1938 and 1942-1945) and himself the President of Colombia from 1974 to 1978.

World Affairs: Mexican rebels take the city of Guaymas in the third year of Mexico’s 10 year revolution.

Second Balkan War: The Bulgarian army torches the wealthy town of Drama one day before it is taken by Greek forces (then in the disputed area between Turkey, Bulgaria and Greece, now in the Greek region of “Eastern Macedonia and Thrace”).

Arms Race – The German Parliament votes to increase the size of its army by 136,000 officers and men.

Accidents: In Lawrence, Massachusetts 11 boys drown in the Merrimack River when a pier leading to a floating bath-house collapses.

Mysteries: Observation confirms that the star we refer to as “the Sun” completed a second sequential calendar month (May and June 1913) with no observed sun spots. There will now be no sun spot free calendar months for at least another 95 years. Sadly, I have no idea of the significance of this fact, but hopefully there are some who do.