BORN TODAY – Robert Adrian de Jauralde Hart, English horticulturalist – the “gardener with a vision of sustainable forests in the city” (the Guardian). Author, ecologist and conservationist.
“Obviously, few of us are in a position to restore the forests.. But tens of millions of us have gardens, or access to open spaces such as industrial wastelands, where trees can be planted. and if full advantage can be taken of the potentialities that are available even in heavily built up areas, new ‘city forests’ can arise…”
First Balkan War: The Turkish government accepts the peace terms for the end of the war, thereby losing 60,000 square miles of its previous European territory and retaining only a tiny foothold in Europe.
Philippe, Duke of Montpensier and pretender to the French throne, is proclaimed King of Albania – one of the former Ottoman provinces in Europe.
Arms Race/ Second Balkan War: The Romanian air-force is founded.
Science, technology and labour relations: Ford Motor company begins its first experiment with the assembly line method of manufacturing.
The Natural History Museum in London opens its Department of Entomology (the study of insects – I had to check).
Transport: In the village of Elsenham, Essex, UK – a branch railway line opens to the town of Thaxted, approximately 6 miles away. (It will survive until 1952).
In Tokyo, Japan, the Oji electric tramway station opens (now the Toden Arakawa line).
Womens’ Suffrage: At the Old Bailey (law court) in London, Emmeline Pankhurst (aged 53) is sentenced to three years penal servitude for “feloniously procuring and inciting a person or persons unknown to commit felony; unlawfully soliciting and inciting persons unknown to commit felony and certain misdemeanours”.
Society and culture: The first permanent force South African army comes into being under the terms of the South Africa Defence Act, 1912.
In German East Africa, the town of Bismarckburg (now Kasanga in Tanzania) on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, with around 3900 inhabitants, becomes the official seat of the District Office.
In Prague (then in Austria-Hungary, later Czechoslovakia, now the Czech Republic) the Jedlicka Institute for the Disabled is founded, specialising in the care of disabled children and adults.