8th July 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Lviv (Lwów”, “Lvov”, or “Lemberg”, depending on your linguistic roots) – the Army of the Bug, known to its friends as the “Armeeoberkommando Bug”.



On the British Home Front:

~ At Aldershot, Lance Corporal Benjamin Burnley, a collier from  Pontefract, overstays his authorised leave by 9 hours and 35 minutes, for which he is severely reprimanded and forfeits a day’s pay.


~ In the personal column of the London “Times”, Ethel M shames Jack F.G:

“Jack F.G. If you are not in khaki by the 20th I shall cut you dead. Ethel M.”.


22nd June 1915 (Tuesday)

EXPLORATION: Members of Ernest Shackleton’s Antarctic expedition celebrate mid-winter with a dinner on board HMS Endurance.


DIED TODAY: at  Bukovina (now split between Romania and Ukraine) – Ferenc Istvan Dénes Gyula Békássy, Cambridge graduate, Hungarian bi-lingual poet and Imperial Hussar. Killed in action, aged 22.



Eastern Front: Austro-Hungarian forces recapture the city of Lemberg (Lwow/ Lviv) from the Russians.


Africa: On the shores of Lake Victoria in German East Africa, the British 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers and others have launched an amphibious attack on Bukoba (“The Battle of Bukoba”) with the objective to destroy the German wireless station.


20th June 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Hamburg – SM UC-6, a German  minelayer submarine.  In just over two years she will sink over 50 ships before herself being destroyed in September 1917.



Eastern Front: At the Battle of Lemberg, German & Austro-Hungarian forces lauch an attack to re-take the city and the Austrian fortress lost to the Russians in 1914 (later Lwów in Poland, now Lviv in Ukraine).


Across Empires: in St John’s on the Island of St. Pierre et Miquelon ( a vestige of the colony of New France off the Atlantic coast of Canada) 242 Canadian recruits of “F” company embark on HM Troopship Calgarian, bound for Liverpool and the war in Europe, including Inuit and Métis volunteers from Labrador.


8th June 1915 (Tuesday)


~ In Jorhat in the British Raj (now in Assam in India) – Sonaram Chutia – fighter against casteism.


~ in Aughnacloy, County Tyrone, in British Ireland (now part of Northern Ireland) – Sean McCaughey, metal worker, gaelic teacher and fighter against the British in Ireland.


~ In Lwow (caught at the time between Russian and Austrian forces, later in Poland, and now in Western Ukraine) – Witold Lanowski,  fighter pilot against the Nazis in the Polish, British and US air forces.


20th May, 1915 (Thursday)


~ On Independence Day in  Cardenas, in the province of Matanzas, on the north coast of Cuba – the city’s electric tramway.


~ Also, on the Degania Alef kibbutz in Ottoman Palestine, to Shmuel and Devorah Dayan, immigrants from Ukraine – a son: Moshe.



In Rome: The Italian Parliament ratifies the decision to go to war against Austria-Hungary. [Mark Thompson: “The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919”]

14th April 1915 (Wednesday)


In the Middle East:  Anglo-Indian forces oust a much larger combined Turkish and Arab army at the Battle of Shaiba, following which the Ottoman Commander, Suleiman Askeri, takes his own life.


On the Black Sea: Tsar Nicholas, the Russian Emperor, inspects troops in the Russian city of Odessa (now in Ukraine).  “To-day I saw our fine fellows [our beauties] in Odessa at a grand inspection. Visited two hospitals. Lovely summer-like weather”. 


On the North Sea: German Zeppelin L9 carries out a bombing raid on Tyneside, in the north of England.


On the (English) Home Front: An army recruiting parade today in Bournemouth, on England’s south coast…

21st February 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY – in Kharkiv, in the Russian Empire (soon to be the first city to acknowledge Soviet power, in 1917, and now the second largest city in Ukraine) – Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz, Soviet physicist.


World Affairs: A plan for a general insurrection against British rule in the Punjab, India, fails after informants forewarn the authorities.



War from the air: a German Zeppelin bombs the towns of Braintree and Cochester in England’s eastern county of Essex.


17th January 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: (only in the USA) – Vincent Kosuga – American onion farmer “best known for manipulating the onion futures market. Though he made millions of dollars on commodity trading, his actions were highly controversial and attracted government scrutiny. This scrutiny led to the passing of the Onion Future Act, which banned the trading of futures contracts  on onions.” [Wikipedia]



In the East: Russia occupies the historic region of Bukovina (now divided between Ukraine and Romania), and also Western Ukraine.




Mining accidents: At the village of Halmer End, in England’s North Staffordshire coal-fields, a coal gas explosion kills 9 miners, including Arthur Shufflebottom, aged just 16.


Society and culture: in the USA, the radical labour organizer and anarchist Lucy Parsons lead a hunger march in Chicago.


3rd September 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Kusminki, in the Oryol Governorate of Western Russia – Ivan Pereverzev, Russian actor whose career started “in the Donbass” (now the Donets region of Eastern Ukraine) and ended with a Very English Murder. [Wikipedia].



Eastern Front: Russian troops occupy the (formerly Austrian-ruled) city of Lemberg/ Lvov/ Lviv in Galicia (now in Ukraine).

Western Front: German troops, sweeping south to the east of Paris, reach the river Marne.

War at Sea:

~ In the German “concession” area of Jiaozhou Bay off China’s Shandong peninsula, the Japanese destroyer “Shirotaye” is itself destroyed by the German gunboat “Jaguar”.


~ British HMS “Speedy”, a torpedo gunboat and the sixth of nine Royal Navy vessels christened “Speedy”, is not fast enough to avoid the mine which sinks it, in the Humber Estuary on England’s east coast.



In Rome: the College of Cardinals chooses 59 year old Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa as the new Pope – Benedict XV.

2nd September 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in London, England – Baron George Brown: city clerk; fur salesman for John Lewis; ledger clerk for the Transport and General Workers Union; then District Organiser; Labour MP in the landslide victory of 1945; Minister and later Deputy Prime Minister in the Labour government of the 1960s.



Eastern Front: The Austro-Hungarian army abandons the city of Lemburg in Galicia (Lvov in Polish, now Lviv, in Ukraine) under pressure from the Russian advance westward.

Western Front: The French Government leaves Paris, relocating to Bordeaux. In Germany, today is Sedantag, a semi-official memorial holiday commemorating King Wilhelm of Prussia’s victory over the French in the Battle of Sedan in 1870.

The Asia Pacific Theatre:   More than 20,000 Japanese troops land on the Shandong peninsula in North East China. Their target is the German port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao).