8th July 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Lviv (Lwów”, “Lvov”, or “Lemberg”, depending on your linguistic roots) – the Army of the Bug, known to its friends as the “Armeeoberkommando Bug”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_of_the_Bug

War!

On the British Home Front:

~ At Aldershot, Lance Corporal Benjamin Burnley, a collier from  Pontefract, overstays his authorised leave by 9 hours and 35 minutes, for which he is severely reprimanded and forfeits a day’s pay.

http://www.wakefield.gov.uk/residents/libraries-and-local-history/local-and-family-history/we-will-remember-them/stories/pontefract/benjamin-burnley

~ In the personal column of the London “Times”, Ethel M shames Jack F.G:

“Jack F.G. If you are not in khaki by the 20th I shall cut you dead. Ethel M.”.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/11/first-world-war-white-feather-cowardice

22nd June 1915 (Tuesday)

EXPLORATION: Members of Ernest Shackleton’s Antarctic expedition celebrate mid-winter with a dinner on board HMS Endurance.

http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/midwinter-dinner-on-the-endurance-22nd-june-1915-during-the-news-photo/480802147

DIED TODAY: at  Bukovina (now split between Romania and Ukraine) – Ferenc Istvan Dénes Gyula Békássy, Cambridge graduate, Hungarian bi-lingual poet and Imperial Hussar. Killed in action, aged 22.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferenc_B%C3%A9k%C3%A1ssy

War!

Eastern Front: Austro-Hungarian forces recapture the city of Lemberg (Lwow/ Lviv) from the Russians.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1915/06/austro-hungarian-forces-recapture-the-city-of-lemberg-lvov-from-the-russians/

Africa: On the shores of Lake Victoria in German East Africa, the British 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers and others have launched an amphibious attack on Bukoba (“The Battle of Bukoba”) with the objective to destroy the German wireless station.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bukoba

20th June 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Hamburg – SM UC-6, a German  minelayer submarine.  In just over two years she will sink over 50 ships before herself being destroyed in September 1917.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_UC-6

War!

Eastern Front: At the Battle of Lemberg, German & Austro-Hungarian forces lauch an attack to re-take the city and the Austrian fortress lost to the Russians in 1914 (later Lwów in Poland, now Lviv in Ukraine).

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_lemberg1915.html

Across Empires: in St John’s on the Island of St. Pierre et Miquelon ( a vestige of the colony of New France off the Atlantic coast of Canada) 242 Canadian recruits of “F” company embark on HM Troopship Calgarian, bound for Liverpool and the war in Europe, including Inuit and Métis volunteers from Labrador.

http://www.heritage.nf.ca/first-world-war/articles/aboriginals-first-world-war.php

8th June 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ In Jorhat in the British Raj (now in Assam in India) – Sonaram Chutia – fighter against casteism.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonaram_Chutia

~ in Aughnacloy, County Tyrone, in British Ireland (now part of Northern Ireland) – Sean McCaughey, metal worker, gaelic teacher and fighter against the British in Ireland.

http://republican-news.org/current/news/2015/05/sean_mccaughey.html#.VXMbq1yqqko

~ In Lwow (caught at the time between Russian and Austrian forces, later in Poland, and now in Western Ukraine) – Witold Lanowski,  fighter pilot against the Nazis in the Polish, British and US air forces.

http://witoldlanowski.com/early-career.html

20th May, 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY:

~ On Independence Day in  Cardenas, in the province of Matanzas, on the north coast of Cuba – the city’s electric tramway.

http://www.tramz.com/cu/cd/cd.html

~ Also, on the Degania Alef kibbutz in Ottoman Palestine, to Shmuel and Devorah Dayan, immigrants from Ukraine – a son: Moshe.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moshe_Dayan

War!

In Rome: The Italian Parliament ratifies the decision to go to war against Austria-Hungary. [Mark Thompson: “The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919”]

14th April 1915 (Wednesday)

War!

In the Middle East:  Anglo-Indian forces oust a much larger combined Turkish and Arab army at the Battle of Shaiba, following which the Ottoman Commander, Suleiman Askeri, takes his own life.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Shaiba

On the Black Sea: Tsar Nicholas, the Russian Emperor, inspects troops in the Russian city of Odessa (now in Ukraine).  “To-day I saw our fine fellows [our beauties] in Odessa at a grand inspection. Visited two hospitals. Lovely summer-like weather”. 

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/letters/april15.html

On the North Sea: German Zeppelin L9 carries out a bombing raid on Tyneside, in the north of England.

http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/14th-april/4582467811

On the (English) Home Front: An army recruiting parade today in Bournemouth, on England’s south coast…

21st February 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY – in Kharkiv, in the Russian Empire (soon to be the first city to acknowledge Soviet power, in 1917, and now the second largest city in Ukraine) – Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz, Soviet physicist.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evgeny_Lifshitz

World Affairs: A plan for a general insurrection against British rule in the Punjab, India, fails after informants forewarn the authorities.

http://www.sikh-history.com/sikhhist/personalities/tundilat.html

War!

War from the air: a German Zeppelin bombs the towns of Braintree and Cochester in England’s eastern county of Essex.

http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/21st-february/4586236415