3rd September, 1915 (Friday)


~ in Kristiania (formerly, and more recently, Oslo) – Knut Nystedt, Norwegian orchestral and choral composer.

~ In Cranz in East Prussia (now Zelenogradsk in the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad on the Baltic) – Abel Ehrlich, Israeli composer.

~ In Memphis, Tennessee – John Len Chatman, better known as Memphis Slim, American blues pianist, singer and composer.




6th August, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Budapest in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now the capital of Hungary) to American heiress Gladys Virginia Steuart and her husband, Count Gyula Apponyi de Nagy Appony – “The “White Rose of Hungary”, Countess Géraldine Margit Virginia Olga Mária Apponyi de Nagy-Appony, who worked as a shorthand typist and shop assistant, and later as Queen Geraldine of the Albanians, the Queen Consort of King Zog I, who reigned from 1928 to 1939.

After more than 60 years of wandering refugee life (including spells at the Ritz and at Ascot), Geraldine was permitted to return to communist Albania in 2002, where she died 5 months later in a military hospital, still insisting that her son, Leka Zogu, was the legitimate King of the Albanians. [Wikipedia].


10th June 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Lachine, Quebec, Canada – Saul Bellow, Pulitzer and Nobel winner.



Africa: At the second battle of Garua, British and French troops defeat a defending force to take control of the German colony of Kamerun.



18th July 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: Gino Bartali, Italian champion road cyclist knighted in his home country and posthumously awarded the honorific “Righteous Among the Nations” for his efforts to aid jews during World War 2.


World Affairs: in Berlin, a Bavarian diplomat tells the Bavarian Prime Minister that Austria is only pretending to be “peacefully inclined” and that the utlimatum they are preparing to serve on Serbia is designed to generate a rejection, and thus provide an excuse for war: “ It is perfectly plain that Serbia cannot accept any such demands, which are incompatible with her dignity as a sovereign state” [Fromkin: “Europe’s Last Summer”].


Arms Race: Britain’s King George V reviews the fleet at Spithead, including 260 Royal Navy ships (59 battleships) and 17 seaplanes. It is seen by some as the first stage of the mobilisation for war.


Mining accidents: The Ironwood Times of Michigan reports the deaths of 7 men on Tuesday at the Alpha mine after a roof collapsed, releasing quicksand into the mine.




30th May 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in London, England – Betty Violet Marie Baskcomb, Stalwart of stage, screen and the glory days of radio drama” [The Independent].


Restless Earth: In California, the Lassen Volcano stirs after 27,000 years dormant, with a steam explosion which will prove to be the first in 8 years of increasingly violent activity.


Shipping News: The Cunard Line’s “RMS Aquitania” sets out on her maiden voyage from Britain to New York, just one day after the loss of over a thousand lives on the RMS Empress of Ireland in the St Lawrence River.


Sport: At Indianapolis, the  fourth 500 mile sweepstake race is won by a Frenchman – M. René Thomas