6th August, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Budapest in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now the capital of Hungary) to American heiress Gladys Virginia Steuart and her husband, Count Gyula Apponyi de Nagy Appony – “The “White Rose of Hungary”, Countess Géraldine Margit Virginia Olga Mária Apponyi de Nagy-Appony, who worked as a shorthand typist and shop assistant, and later as Queen Geraldine of the Albanians, the Queen Consort of King Zog I, who reigned from 1928 to 1939.

After more than 60 years of wandering refugee life (including spells at the Ritz and at Ascot), Geraldine was permitted to return to communist Albania in 2002, where she died 5 months later in a military hospital, still insisting that her son, Leka Zogu, was the legitimate King of the Albanians. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geraldine_of_Albania

27th April 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Alexandropol in the Russian Empire (now Gyumri in western Armenia, near the Turkish border)  – Hovhannes (Onik) Tadevosi Karapetyan, poet.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hovhannes_Shiraz

War!

War at Sea: In the Straits of Otranto, between Italy and Albania, where the French are attempting to blockade the Austro-Hungarian navy inside the Adriatic (ie preventing access to the wider Mediterranean), the Austrian submarine U-5 torpedoes and sinks the cruiser Leon Gambetta, sending 547 sailors to their death. [Burg & Purcell].

 Africa: At Gibeon Station in German South West Africa (now Namibia)  – 41 German and South African soldiers die in battle.

http://www.trenchfighter.com/41815/205801.html

Western Front: GAS!

The 3rd and 4th [gas] attacks took place on 26-27 April 1915 at Steenstrate-Lizerne, near Ieper, in which British, Sikhs and French were the victims. To the left of the Sikhs were French Colonial troops with essentially North Africans and at their right were the British. The Ferozepur Brigade, and the French colonial troops to the left of them, were the worst hit. More gas attacks followed on 27-29 April and 01-02 May 1915 and the victims were again British, Sikhs, Pathans, French and Algerians. [http://www.sikhiwiki.org/].

http://www.sikhiwiki.org/index.php/Menin_Gate_and_the_Sikhs

1st March 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Solesmes, in northern France – Gustave Choque, mathematician.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Choquet

War!

Southern Europe: Stirred in part by the belief that the Allies are making progress against Turkey in the Dardanelles, and therefore might overwhelm Turkey before the Italians have created a negotiating position fror themselves, the Italian general staff puts the army on a “red alert” for mobilisation. A secret proposal is presented in London whereby Italy’s reward for joining the Allies would be significant gains in the South Tyrol, Trieste, Gorizia and Istria, Dalmatia, Kotor (in modern Montenegro) and Albania, effectively turning the Adriatic into an Italian fjord. [Mark Tompson: “The White War, Life and Death on the Isonzo Front, 1915-1919″].

In the Dardanelles:  British fishing trawlers, equipped as minesweepers and with largely civilian crews, begin a two week attempt to clear the straits of mines.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/march-1915.html

The Home Front: in London, on St David’s Day, the newly formed Welsh Guard (part of the British Guards Division) mounts its first “Kings Guard” at Buckingham Palace.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_Guards

4th February, 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: In London – Norman Joseph Wisdom, OBE, flyweight boxing champion, magician’s sidekick, Charlie Chaplin’s “favourite clown”, cult figure in Albania, granted the freedom of the city of Tirana.

“I was born in very sorry circumstances. Both of my parents were very sorry.” [Wikipedia]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Wisdom

War!

Middle East: The British Viceroy of India, Charles Hardinge, Lord Penshurst (who is responsible for overseeing British policy and interests in the Middle East) arrives in Basra for a tour of inspection of the British  and (mainly) Anglo-Indian troops there [Roger Ford: “Eden to Armageddon: World War 1 in the Middle East”].

War at Sea: Germany publicly declares a war zone encircling the British Isles in which all merchant ships, regardless of their origin or purpose, may be sunk by submarines without warning. [Burg & Purcell].

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/germanadmiraltydeclaration.htm

Peace: 

Accident at the quayside: At dock in Great Yarmouth, on England’s east coast, E-class submariner and Petty Officer First Class, Albert George Hodder, is returning from  a shopping trip into the town when he slips from a gangplank into a strong cold current and is drowned.

http://www.wessexwfa.org.uk/articles/great-yarmouth.htm

24th November 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Lushnjë, Albania – Fahredin Nuri, hydraulic engineer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fahredin_Nuri

~ in London – Lynn Russell Chadwick, architect turned semi-abstract sculptor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynn_Chadwick

Exploration

Ernest Shackleton’s antarctic expedition photographs the Head of Moraine Fjord, South Georgia, in a silver bromide print which will later be presented to Britain’s King George V,

http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/2580048/head-of-moraine-fjord-south-georgia

16th July 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: Henoch Raberaba – Australian landscape artist.

http://www.hermannsburgschool.com/?artists

http://www.cooeeart.com.au/aboriginal_archive_region/hermannsburg_nt/henoch_raberaba/A

World Affairs: from her chosen retirement retreat, a cottage overlooking the Marne Valley, east of Paris, American Mildred Aldrich writes “ It is all the fault of that nasty affair in (sic) Servia… It is  nasty outlook. We are simply holding our breaths here.” [Mildred Aldrich: “A Hilltop on the Marne”]

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Hilltop-Marne-Mildred-Aldrich-ebook/dp/B00J75NFC4/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1403458151&sr=1-1&keywords=hilltop+on+the+marne

Migration and displacements:  Harry Lamb, the British delegate on the International Control Commission (overseeing the administration of the new Albanian state, on behalf of the Great Powers) writes to Sir Edward Grey, the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, highlighting the plight of displaced Chams (Greek muslims from the region known to Albanians as Chameria, but considered by Greeks to be a part of Epirus, recently taken (or reclaimed) by Greece. The Cham refugees are in the southern Albanian seaport of Vlora.

http://www.elsie.de/en/books/b65.html

 

 

19th May 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Vienna in the Austro-Hungarian Empire – Max Ferdinand Perutz, OM (Order of Merit); CH (Order of the Companions of Honour); CBE (Commander of the Order of the British Empire); FRS (Fellow of the Royal Society); emigree from Nazi Austria; accidental expert on glaciers; internee in Canada on the orders of Winston Churchill; molecular biologist; Nobel prize winner; founder and Chair of the Medical Reseach Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology at Cambridge (England).

His parents hoped that he would become a lawyer” [Wikipedia]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Perutz

World Affairs: Essad Pasha Toptani,  a wealthy Albanian landowner who is also the minister of war and of the interior for the new Albanian state, and who is suspected of fomenting the Peasant’s Revolt, (later) records in his memorandum on Albania (1919) how a group of “Austrophile” gendarmes, led by a Dutch officer, attempt to take him prisoner:

“At the time, I was Minister of War and of Internal Affairs, and was interim Prime Minister. I consented, but on condition that the Italian Minister to the Albanian Court take charge of me. Under such circumstances, I was obliged to leave my country and take refuge initially in Rome and then in Paris”.

http://www.albanianhistory.net/texts20_1/AH1919.html

Science and technology: On New Zealand’s North Island, after centuries of going its own way, the Rangitāiki River (the longest river in the Bay of Plenty region) is from today re-channelled through a different, man-made, course so that a swamp can be drained and turned into farmland.

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/bay-of-plenty-places/page-8

19th February, 1914 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: at Begles, Aquitaine, France – Jacques Dufilho, comic actor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Dufilho

World Affairs: In Epirus on the fault line between orthodox Christian Greece and Muslim Albania, relief worker Raymond Duncan sends his third telegram to the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Sir Edward Grey, reporting on atrocities committed against the local Muslim community.

http://www.elsie.de/en/books/b65.html

17th February 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Newcastle, northern England – George Mathwin Forrester – RAF Hurricane Pilot who died during the Battle of Britain in July 1940, aged 26.

http://www.bbm.org.uk/Forrester.htm

Arms Race: In the British Parliament, the First Lord of the Admiralty (Winston Churchill) declines to answer a question from a member about comments in the German Parliament regarding proposals for mutual reductions in naval construction.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1914/feb/17/germany-and-great-britain#S5CV0058P0_19140217_CWA_44

World Affairs: Hjalmar Hammarskjöld replaces Karl Albert Staaf as Prime Minister of Sweden.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hjalmar_Hammarskj%C3%B6ld

Aftermath of the Second Balkan War: In Northern Epirus (previously part of the Ottoman Empire, but recently granted to newly formed Albania under the Protocol of Florence), Greek forces lead an armed rebellion to declare the Independence of Norther Epirus from the Albanians.

http://www.sfeva.gr/76F95304.en.aspx

Society and Culture: The National Opera Company of Canada collapses after just one season amid accusations and scandal.

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/national-opera-company-of-canada-emc/

Science and technology: the New York “American” magazine reports on US senate intentions for formally inquire into the use of babies and infants for vivisection experiments.

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=6F2lmCfiy8gC&pg=PA170&lpg=PA170&dq=17th+february+1914&source=bl&ots=wYlHSJwTQV&sig=YNFv7nouWfxCJuTPay_0hBaX1VM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ONj1UoWuFsOrhQfQ34DQCw&ved=0CCkQ6AEwADgU#v=onepage&q=17th%20february%201914&f=false

Shipwrecks: In Massachusetts, USA – the Italian cargo ship “Castagna”, laden with guano from Uruguay, runs aground on Cape Cod. Five of the thirteen crew perish of cold before lifesavers are able to reach them.

Click to access CAHOONSHOLLOW.pdf

13th February 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: In Warsaw, Poland – Tadeusz Sawicz, Polish Airman who joined the 303 squadron in Britain in October 1940. Attached to the US 9th Air Force in 1944, and later to 61 Squadron USAAF, before being finally released from the Polish Air Force in 1947, and emigrating to Canada in 1957.

http://www.bbm.org.uk/Sawicz.htm

World Affairs: Under the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne, the “Great Powers” inform Greece that following its evacuation of Northern Epirus, which has been awarded to Albania, Greece will take sovereignty of the Aegean Islands previously under Ottoman control.

Click to access grecia1.pdf