29th June, 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY:   in Little Tew, in Oxfordshire – Nancy Sandars, archaeologist.


World Affairs: In Sarajevo, Catholic Croats and Muslims riot (together), attacking Serbians and their homes and businesses. [“Almanac of World War 1“]. Fifty are injured, and one is killed. There are also anti-Serbian riots in Vienna.


~ in Pokrovskoye, in the Tyumen Oblast, in Russia – Khioniya Guseva tries to assassinate Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin, the Russian mystic, faith healer and private adviser to the Romanovs. She is judged to be insane and committed to an asylum until 1917.


A wandering archaeologist: Thomas Edward Lawrence, a twenty five year old Oxford graduate and archaeologist, is taking a break in England and writes to a friend that he will be in England for another 2 or 3 weeks, after which he expects to return to his duties at Carchemish in Syria. [“Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East”, by Scott Anderson].




28th December 1913 (Sunday)


~ in Beijing (then known in the West as Peking) – Wang Luobin, Chinese folk song writer who, after graduating from music school in Beijing, spent 50 years collecting and revising western Chinese folk songs.


~ In Berlin – Polish musician Jozef Kropinski, survivor of Auschwitz and Buchenwald.


~ in Ofena, Italy – Paolo Silveri, operatic baritone.


Archaeology: In the Ancient Greek and Roman town of Cyrene in Libya,  Italian troops find a headless marble sculpture, “Venus of Cyrene”, after torrential rains washed away the topsoil at Trajan’s Baths in the Sanctuary of Apollo.  After a long sojourn in Italy she returned home to Cyrene in 2008.


21st May 1913 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: at Tettenhall, Wolverhampton, UK – Leonard Cottrell, British author and journalist who popularised archaeology with titles like “Life under the Pharaohs”, “Crete, Island of Mystery”, and “The Quest for Sumer”.

Society and Culture: King George V of Britain and Ireland arrives in Germany  to attend the wedding of his cousin’s daughter – Princess Luise (daughter of the Kaiser). These two cousins are both grandchildren of Queen Victoria of Britain and Ireland. Tomorrow another of King George’s cousins, Tsar Nicholas II, will join them. These two cousins (George and Nicholas) are both grandchildren of King Christian X of Denmark.

In New York, Raffaele Ciavarella is executed in the electric chair for the crime of murder.

23rd January 1913 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY – Harold and Hugh Butler (twins), in London. They emigrated to Australia with their family in 1929/30, becoming Anglican priests in 1939 and 1940 respectively, and were both still active in Tasmanian church life 60 years later, after the turn of the millennium.

First Balkan War: The Turkish War Minister is assassinated by a member of the Young Turk movement, and Kamil Pasha, the Grand Vizier, is put under house arrest and forced to resign.

Society and culture:

In a general election in the Australian state of Tasmania, the position of the Liberal party is temporarily strengthened, although the government will only survive for a little over 1 more year.

In the UK, Sir William Julien Courtald, 1st Baronet of Bocking (in Essex) and family member of the Courtauld business empire, marries Constance Cecily Courtauld, his cousin, in Gosfield, Essex.

Man Made Disasters: In McKinney, Texas, a department store collapses during shopping hours and fire break out in the ruins. Eight are killed and more are injured.

Labour relations: In the US, 800 workers begin a strike in “Silk City”, Peterson, New Jersey. In two weeks they will be joined by another 24,000 workers at over 100 other mills in the City.

Law and Order: 14 year old Al Capone is expelled from school.

20th January 1913 (Monday)

BORN TODAY, in Raymond, Alberta – Cleon Skousen,  author of “The Naked Communist” (1958) which claimed that the Soviet union was planning to take over the world. By 1960 it was recommended reading for all members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons).

Natural disaster: The Colima volcano in Mexico erupts. Between 11:30am and 1:00 pm there is a continuous and explosive eruption that knocks 100 meters (300 feet) off the top of the mountain. Ash falls at Saltillo 725 km NNE of the volcano.

First Balkan War: Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro present an ultimatum to the Ottomans, giving them 14 days to make a favorable reply to their demands or face a resumption of the war.

Society and culture. Following the normal practice of the time, the archaeological finds from the 1911-1914 excavations on behalf of the German Orient Society are split in equal shares between the (German) sponsors and the (Egyptian) hosts. As a result the famous colored Nefertiti bust discovered two weeks ago is awarded to Berlin, where it remains to this day, in the Staatliche Museen.

In Mexico, José Guadalupe Posada, the graphic artist who illustrated and interpreted the early years of the Mexican Revolution from 1910, died, aged 61.