7th July 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Birmingham, Alabama – Margaret Abigail Walker, novelist and poet.


Extreme Weather: A violent storm kills at least 38 people in Cincinatti, Ohio. “An uncertain number of people drowned in overturned boats in the Ohio River.”



On the Southern Front: The first battle of the Isonzo, between Italian and Austro-Hungarian forces, draws to a close after two weeks.

“The first battle of the Isonzo cost the Italians 14,947 casualties, including 1,500 men taken prisoner. The Austrians lost 9,948 men, a higher proportion of their army on the Isonzo, but not enough to win the Italians a breakthrough. The search for that breakthrough would result in ten more Italian attacks on the Isonzo, none of which would achieve the decisive breakthrough.” [www.historyofwar.org]


1st July 1915 (Thursday)


~ in Gradel’s restaurant, in Whitechapel, in the heart of London’s East End – The Ben Uri Gallery.


~ In Australia – the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service, now operating as Lighthouses of Australia Inc, providing “an extensive network of aids to navigation around the coastline… comprising nearly 490 aids at approximately 380 sites” 


19th April 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Kharagpur, West Bengal – Chintamoni Kar, “renowned Indian sculptor.” [Wikipedia]


War in the air

Dardanelles: The British use aeriel spotters in a balloon attached to a “kite-balloon ship” to locate a Turkish defensive encampment, relaying the co-ordinates to a cruiser over the horizon which then accurately shells the Turks. [Burg & Purcell].

Belgium: Lieutenant Lanoe George Hawker, Royal Engineers and Royal Flying Corps shows
“conspicuous gallantry when he succeed[s] in dropping bombs on the German airship shed at Gontrode from a height of only 200 feet, under circumstances of the greatest risk. Lieutenant Hawker display[s] remarkable ingenuity in utilizing an occupied German captive balloon to shield him from fire whilst manoeuvring to drop the bombs.” He is later awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his gallantry and ingenuity.


10th March 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Arzene, in the Friuli–Venezia Giulia region of North-East Italy, Arieto (later Harry) Bertoia, teenage migrant, modern furniture designer, and sound sculptor.



Hubris: In London, the War Council has absorbed Churchill’s optimism about the Dardanelles operation, and discusses its plans for the aftermath of the fall of Constantinople. [Burg & Purcell].

Western Front: At the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, British and Canadian troops attempt to rupture the German line. After roughly 10,000 casualties on each side over the next four days, the battle is described as a “tactical success and a strategic failure” for the Allied forces and the conclusion is reached that “… England will have to accustom herself to far greater losses than those of Neuve Chapelle before we finally crush the German army” [Brigadier General John Charteris, quoted on Wikipedia]


2nd March 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: The novel “The Rainbow” by D.H. Lawrence, completed today. His publishers are worried about its sexual content, and are prosecuted almost immediately the book is published. It is promptly banned in Britain for 11 years under the Obscene Publications Act 1857, but is published in the USA in November of 1915.



The Dardanelles: A British Admiral telegraphs London that if the weather co-operates he expects to reach Constantinople in about two weeks. [Burg & Purcell].

8th November 1914 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Pichilemu, Chile – Juan Acevedo Pavez, Chilean socialist politician.



In the Balkans: as part of the “Third Invasion of Serbia”, now in its third day, the Austro-Hungarians attack the Serbian 2nd Army near Cer Mountain, approximately 100 km from Belgrade.


In London, the French sculptor Auguste Rodin donates eighteen of his sculptures to the Victoria & Albert Museum to honour the French and British soldiers fighting for their countrymen.

“The English and French are brothers; your soldiers are fighting side by side with ours. As a little token of my admiration for your heroes, I decided to present the collection to England. That is all’.


in Perth, Western Australia, the Sunday times newspaper includes a short news story headlined “German debauchery: Orgy with prostitutes” including the German commander’s nonchalant remark to the local burgomaster: “those officers are not the elite of my army”.