31st July 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: Louis Germain David de Funès de Galarza, French comic.



Across Europe, Governments are ordering full mobilisation of armies, each afraid that the others will “steal a march” and gain a day’s movement of forces.

! Germany issues ultimata to both Russia and France

! Austria moves from limited aggression against Serbia to full mobilisation

! Turkey order mobilization for 3rd August

! Britain asks both Germany and France whether they will respect Belgian neutrality, and meantime issues order to its fleet in the Mediterranean to aid French transportation of troops back from Africa, and to interfere with German vessels if it can be done without undue risk.

[Almanac of Worlds War 1]


Assassination: In the “Croissant Cafe” in the Rue Montmartre in Paris, French socialist and anti-militarist Jean Jaures is shot dead by a French nationalist in retaliation for his (Jaure’s) efforts to preserve peace between France and Germany.





1st June 1914 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Vienna, Austria-Hungary – Franz Kraemer, Canadian broadcaster, and “pioneer of opera on TV”.


Society and Culture: In Vienna, Generalmajor Viktor Weber von Webenau becomes a member of the “Supreme Military Court”, quickly rising to the position of Vice President in July.


World Affairs: On a quiet Monday evening in the Balkans, 19 year old Gavrilo Princip and 18 year old Trifun Grabež, two young men with dreams of a better world, cross over the Drina River from Serbia to Bosnia with assassination on their minds.


Women’s suffrage: In the village of Wargrave in central England, suffragettes are suspected of starting the blaze which destroys the village church. (more dreams of a better world?).


Irish suffragettes: In Belfast, in British Ireland, suffragettes stage a “counter demonstration” when large numbers of mill-girls turn out to welcome the Unionist leader, Sir Edward Carson. In the ensuing fracas, “the [mill] girls caught one of the militant women, and, stripping her of nearly all clothing, spanked her with her own shoes. It was only with difficulty that the police,who were stopped by the mill hands, rescued the suffragette from her painful predicament.”  [The Melbourne Argus, 3rd June 1914]

(multiple dreams of a better world…)


5th May 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: In Harbin, China – to Russian parents, Eugenia Fomenko. Daughter of a suspected (Russian) US agent; architect in Harbin; dancer in Shanghai (with new name of  Jeanne LeGon); emigrant to the US; successful department store worker in Brooklyn; sportswear executive in Dallas, and briefly in California; suspected communist spy; divorcee; spouse of a Russian nobleman emigre with dubious connections (now Mrs Jeanne de Mohrenschildt); adventurer in Mexico and Central America; supporter of Russian emigres and refugees in Dallas; expatriate with interesting connections in Haiti; witness at the Warren Commission into the assassination of John Kennedy; widow of a man whose exact role (if any)  in the assassination remains unclear to this day. [Spartacus Educational]


10th September 1913 (Wednesday)


~ In  New York City – Abraham Lincoln Gordon, US Ambassador to Brazil from 1961 to 1966.


~ Also in New York City – the Lincoln Highway, the first transcontinental “improved” (paved) highway for automobiles across the United States of America from Times Square in New York to Lincoln Park in San Francisco.


~ In Cadiz, Kentucky, USA – John Gordon Mein, US Ambassador to Guatemala, 1965-1968, where he was assassinated on 28th august 1968.


DIED TODAY: On the ocean liner RMS Baltic, approaching Liverpool, England – William Gaynor, the Mayor of New York City since 1910, who has been suffering ill health since being wounded in an assassination attempt in 1910.