22nd August 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Brantford, Ontario – James Hiller, co-developer of the electron microscope.

http://www.nndb.com/people/125/000206504/

War!

The (Russian) Home Front: The Tsar takes over supreme command of the army, and leaves St Petersburg in the dangerous hands of the Tsarina and her trusted advisor, Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin, a peasant and mystical faith healer.

http://www.johndclare.net/Russ_Rasputin_Figes.htm

The (French) Home Front: in the streets of Paris, young boys and girls play at being soldiers and nurses.

http://www.vintag.es/2015/04/kids-at-war-paris-1915-rare-photographs.html

The (Scottish) Home Front: in Aberdeen, 26,000 pay sixpence each to attend the “Gala and Heather day” in Duthie Park, in support of the Aberdeen Royal Infirmary.

http://www.friendsofduthiepark.co.uk/heather-day-at-duthie-park-a-century-on/

The (Irish) Home Front: In Dublin, at a “Celebration of gaelic and athletic events”, Patrick Pearse addresses the crowd of several thousand on his subject: “The Resurrection of Erin”.

http://www.millstreet.ie/blog/2015/08/19/patrick-pearse-and-his-visit-to-millstreet-on-22nd-aug-1915

29th July 1915 (Thursday)

DIED TODAY: Major-General Henry Newport Charles Heath, son of Major-General Alfred Heath, (Royal Artillery): Heath Jr was born in 1860 and attended Clifton College and Sandhurst Royal Military College before fighting in the Anglo-Egyptian War (1882); taking part in the Anglo-Egyptian expedition to relieve General Gordon at Khartoum (1884-85); fighting in the Second Boer War in South Africa (1899-1902); and leading a command in the first world war before falling ill and dying today, aged 54.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Heath_(British_Army_officer)

 

 

26th July 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Nidubrolu in Andhra Pradesh, British India – Pragada Kotaiah, freedom fighter and parliamentarian.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragada_Kotaiah

War!

Socialism in Italy: a “rising star” of the Italian socialist party, one Benito Mussolini, expresses the view that “Italian workers should give ‘not a penny’ to the cause of war, nor spill ‘one drop of blood’ for a cause that had ‘nothing to do with it’. If the government failed to declare neutrality, the proletatriat would force it to do so”. [Mark Thompson: “The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919”].

Fire in Constantinople:  A great fire in Istanbul, later attributed to Russian areoplane bombing, destroys over 3000 buildings.

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=WC19150825.2.49.3

Submarines in the Dardanelles: the French submarine “Mariotte” is sunk by the Ottoman Navy, and its crew taken as prisoners of war.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_July_1915

Discipline on the Western Front: in the largest single judicial execution by the British during the war, 5 members of the 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment are executed on the ramparts of Ypres.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn

28th May, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: In Cambridge, England – Fred Unwin, local man, brush salesman, milkman, psychiatric nurse and ‘desert rat’ with the Eighth Army. Later, an amateur (Cambridge) community historian. Passed away in December 2014, aged 99. RIP.

http://cambridgehistorian.blogspot.com/2012/07/fred-unwin-pimbo-author.html

Colonial unrest: In Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) against a backdrop of the recent imposition of martial law by the (British) authorities, A Buddhist procession celebrating Vesak Poya Day defies orders to stop drum beating while passing a mosque in Gampola town. Violence follows, including Buddhists attacks on a mosque, and on muslim businesses, escalating to 63 deaths across the island [Lanka Herald website].

http://lankaherald.com/2015/02/01/from-1915-to-independence/

18th May 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: Among the Onondaga Indians of the Iroquois confederacy – Leon Shenandoah, elected Tadodaho (spiritual leader) in 1968, and – in his spare time – a custodian at Syracuse University.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadodaho

War!

The (French) Home Front: An American writes from her retirement home in the Marne Valley of the hardening of French attitudes after the introduction of chemical weapons and the sinking of the Lusitania: “I have seen grow up among these simple people [her French neighbours] the conviction that the race which planned and launched this great war has lost the very right to live; and that none of the dreams of the world can ever be realized while Prussia exists, even if the war lasts twenty years, and even if, before it is over, the whole world has to take a hand in it”

[Mildred Aldrich: “A Hilltop on the Marne”]

Gallipoli: Major General Sir William Throsby Bridges, aged 54 and originally from Renfrewshire in Scotland, but more recently the first Australian to reach the rank of Major General, dies of his wounds inflicted by a Turkish sniper three days ago. A veteran of the Boer War, Bridges becomes “one of only two Australians killed in action in the Great War to be interred in Australia” [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Bridges_%28general%29

The (Australian) Home Front – In Melbourne, Australia – Sister Edith Wilson Yeaman of the Australian Auxiliary Nursing Service embarks on the SS Mooltan, heading for service at the No 3 Australian General Hospital. She will serve for 4 years in Egypt, France and England before returning home to Australia in May 1919.

http://nurses.ww1anzac.com/y.html

21st April 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: on the island of Sandøy in Norway – Oddmund Myklebust, Norwegian fisherman and politician.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oddmund_Myklebust

Society and culture: Speaking at a reception in Madras in British India [now Chennai in India] Ghandi praises the Madrassis for their fortitude during the long civil disobedience campaign in South Africa:

“It was the Madrassis who of all the Indians were singled out by the great Divinity that rules over us for this great work. Do you know that in the great city of Johannesburg, the Madarasis look on a Madrasis as dishonored if he has not passed through the jails once or twice during this terrible crisis that your countrymen in South Africa went through during these eight long years?”

War!

Western Front: the second Battle of Ypres commences in Belgium.

http://www.worldwar1luton.com/event/second-battle-ypres

26th March, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Brooklyn, NY – Joseph Edward Filipelli, better known as “Flip Phillips” American jazz tenor saxophone and clarinet player.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flip_Phillips

War!

On the “North West Frontier” of the British Raj, the Indian army is defending Miranshah, on the Tochi River in North Waziristan (now part of Pakistan), from a large force of “insurgents” (Lashkars, from Southern Afghanistan).

http://www.kaiserscross.com/304501/455322.html

 

23rd February 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY* in Glen Cove, Nassau County, New York – Walter Shorenstein “San Francisco real estate mogul” [nndb.com]

http://www.nndb.com/people/187/000238470/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Shorenstein

* or perhaps, on Feb 15th?

The perils of modern transport: In Exeter, in England’s west country, the Western Times reports the sad death yesterday of Mr George Creedy, retired policeman, aged 82. Earlier in the month Mr Creedy, who was deaf, had stepped into the path of an oncoming tram in Exeter’s main street.

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

War!

In the Dardanelles: British troops occupy the Greek Island of Lemnos as part of the attempt to capture the Dardanelles and the sea route to Constantinople.

http://www.burnleyinthegreatwar.info/lemnoscemeteries.htm

Colonial tensions: British instructions for the “colonial contingents” (including Australians and New Zealanders) in Egypt include stern advice on dealing with “natives”

“The ill-treatment of natives is a very serious offence, and all cases are to be fully investigated and  reported to Divisional Headquarters before disposal….

“Men should be warned against striking natives, altercations with them should be carefully avoided. They should be particularly warned against donkey boys and dragomen [ie guides and interpreters] as most of these know the english language and are apt to become familiar… They should have as little dealings with natives as possible, whose one idea is to make money out of them.”

https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/RCDIG0000578/?image=1&fullscreen=true

21st February 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY – in Kharkiv, in the Russian Empire (soon to be the first city to acknowledge Soviet power, in 1917, and now the second largest city in Ukraine) – Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz, Soviet physicist.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evgeny_Lifshitz

World Affairs: A plan for a general insurrection against British rule in the Punjab, India, fails after informants forewarn the authorities.

http://www.sikh-history.com/sikhhist/personalities/tundilat.html

War!

War from the air: a German Zeppelin bombs the towns of Braintree and Cochester in England’s eastern county of Essex.

http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/21st-february/4586236415

15th February 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad – Claudia Vera Cumberbatch, later Claudia Jones, political activist and black nationalist deported from the USA during the McCarthy era; asylum seeker in 1950s Britain; founder of the “West Indian Gazette”; and considered to be the “Mother of Notting Hill Carnival”.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claudia_Jones

War!

Eastern Front: German troops capture Plozk on the Vistula River [Burg & Purcell].

Balkan Front: In Rome, Sidney Sonnino, the Italian foreign minister, officially informs the Austro-Hungarian government in Vienna that its military action in the Balkans has violated the “Triple Alliance” between Italy, Austria and Germany. Although Italy is still officially a neutral state in the war this declaration is effectively an invitation for the Triple Entente (France, Russia and Britain) to come up up with a better offer to buy Italy’s support against the Triple Alliance. [Mark Thompson: “The White War – Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919″].

Colonial unrest: In Singapore, Indian soldiers mutiny in response to rumours that they are to be sent to Turkey to fight against fellow muslims (the Singapore or “Sepoy” mutiny).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1915_Singapore_Mutiny