10th September, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in New York City – Edmond O’Brien, actor.

http://www.nndb.com/people/620/000042494/

Local journalism, 100 years ago today:  in England, the Western Times provides its readers with an update:

“Cycle accident     – On enquiry at the Royal Devon and Hospital last evening we were informed that the youth, Albert Madge, who met with a  serious accident on Wednesday through colliding, while cycling, with a taxi-cab in Queen-street, Exeter, had passed  a comfortable day.”

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

War!

Crime and punishment: At the Tower of London, at 6.00AM, Ernst Waldemar Melin, a Swedish national, is executed by firing squad for the crime of spying on behalf of the German government.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/ernst_melin.htm

6th September 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: Little Willie – the world’s first tank.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-tank-produced

Society and culture: Scotland appoints Ms Emily Miller as its first ever policewoman.

http://www.chrislongmuir.co.uk/index.php/my-blog/35-first-policewoman-in-scotland-100-years-ago

War!

The Balkans: Bulgaria signs a military agreement with Germany agreeing to enter on the side of the Central Powers. In return for sending forces against Serbia and Montenegro (thereby re-opening the unresolved business of the recent Second Balkan War), Bulgaria is promised large parts of Macedonia, a sea port on the Adriatic and territorial concessions in European Turkey. [Burg & Purcell: “Almanac of World War 1”]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgaria%E2%80%93Germany_treaty_(1915)

25th August 1915 (Wednesday)

Modern Life: In Exeter, in England’s west country, the local paper reports that 72 year old Mr Charles Steele has been fined 10 shillings at the Police Court for leaving his motor car unattended in Queen street for nearly an hour… thereby causing an obstruction. His plea that he was engaged on important business appears to have made no impression on the local magistrates.  [Western Times].

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

17th August 1915 (Tuesday)

DIED TODAY: Leo Frank, factory superintendant convicted in 1913 of the murder of an employee, Mary Phagan, aged 13. Sentenced to death by hanging in 1913, later commuted to life imprisonment. Abducted from prison on 16th August 1915, and lynched today, by the “Knights of Mary Phagan”, a vigilante group specifically formed for the abduction and lynching. A superior court judge is photographed among the spectators.

“Leo Frank was posthumously pardoned in 1986 by the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles , which said that it was done without attempting to address the question of guilt or innocence. The consensus of researchers on the subject is that Frank was wrongly convicted”. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_Frank

Extreme Weather: Galveston, Texas is rocked by a category 4 hurricane, with winds of 135mph. Port Arthur is flooded.

http://antonk.com/august-in-history/august-17-on-this-day-in-history-2/

http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth221876/

War!

War at Sea: The German submarine U-38 sinks 10 vessels, 9 British and 1 Spanish, in a single day, on its voyage to become the third most successful U-boat of the first world war.

https://www.google.co.uk/?gws_rd=ssl#q=17th+august+1915&start=10

 

12th August 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in South River, New Jersey – Alexander Francis Wojciechowicz, NFL Hall of Famer.

http://www.nndb.com/people/340/000166839/

Urban Life:  in Exeter, England, the Exeter and Plymough Gazette reports that wagonner Arthur Brealy has been fined 7 shillings and sixpence for dangerous driving of his horse and waggon laden with hay (not keeping in to the left side), resulting in a collision with the post-office mail motor van.

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

War!

War from the air: Six civilians die and twenty three are injured in a Zeppelin raid on the town of Woodbridge, near England’s east coast.

http://www.ucs.ac.uk/About/Events/Event-details-page.aspx?id=23807

7th August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY:

~ In Aachen, Germany – Herman P Schwan,  the “founding father of biomedical engineering“.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_P._Schwan

~ In Brooklyn, New York City – Gary Underhill, a CIA agent who perhaps knew too much for his own good. Found shot dead in May 1964, and officially ruled as a suicide.

http://spartacus-educational.com/JFKunderhillG.htm

War!

Gallipoli: At the small, but disastrous, “Battle of the Nek”, Australian casualties include 234 out of the 300 men of the 8th Light Horse Regiment (154 killed) and 138 out of 300 from the 10th (80 killed).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Nek

3rd August 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: Roman Fischer, an Austrian fencer, and  Arthur Birch, an Australian chemist.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Fischer

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Birch_(organic_chemist)

War!

On the Italian Front: After 91,000 casualties the Second Battle of Isonzo on the Italian/ Austrian border (now the Soca valley in north west Slovenia) draws to a close because both sides have run out of ammunition, both for small arms and for artillery. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_the_Isonzo

On the (Belgian) Home Front: British nurse Edith Cavell, who has been based in Brussels for many years, is arrested by the German authorities on suspicion of helping British, French and Belgian soldiers and citizens to escape from German occupied Belgium.

http://primaryfacts.com/2780/edith-cavell-facts-and-information/

26th July 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Nidubrolu in Andhra Pradesh, British India – Pragada Kotaiah, freedom fighter and parliamentarian.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragada_Kotaiah

War!

Socialism in Italy: a “rising star” of the Italian socialist party, one Benito Mussolini, expresses the view that “Italian workers should give ‘not a penny’ to the cause of war, nor spill ‘one drop of blood’ for a cause that had ‘nothing to do with it’. If the government failed to declare neutrality, the proletatriat would force it to do so”. [Mark Thompson: “The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919”].

Fire in Constantinople:  A great fire in Istanbul, later attributed to Russian areoplane bombing, destroys over 3000 buildings.

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=WC19150825.2.49.3

Submarines in the Dardanelles: the French submarine “Mariotte” is sunk by the Ottoman Navy, and its crew taken as prisoners of war.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_July_1915

Discipline on the Western Front: in the largest single judicial execution by the British during the war, 5 members of the 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment are executed on the ramparts of Ypres.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn

21st July 1915 (Wednesday)

Crime and punishment

Less than one year after the start of the war, Private Herbert Burden of the  Northumberland Fusiliers, aged 19, becomes the 41st British solider to be judicially executed.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/2546-21-july-1915-pte-herbert-burden.html

8th July 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: in Lviv (Lwów”, “Lvov”, or “Lemberg”, depending on your linguistic roots) – the Army of the Bug, known to its friends as the “Armeeoberkommando Bug”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Army_of_the_Bug

War!

On the British Home Front:

~ At Aldershot, Lance Corporal Benjamin Burnley, a collier from  Pontefract, overstays his authorised leave by 9 hours and 35 minutes, for which he is severely reprimanded and forfeits a day’s pay.

http://www.wakefield.gov.uk/residents/libraries-and-local-history/local-and-family-history/we-will-remember-them/stories/pontefract/benjamin-burnley

~ In the personal column of the London “Times”, Ethel M shames Jack F.G:

“Jack F.G. If you are not in khaki by the 20th I shall cut you dead. Ethel M.”.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/nov/11/first-world-war-white-feather-cowardice