21st August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Copenhagen – Anna Rachel Rastén, the Danish singer better known as Raquel Rastenni.


MODERN AGRICULTURE: In California, the Pacific Rural Press reports on a Texan farmer’s recent success in breeding “Cattelo”, a hybrid cattle and buffalo stock.



Gallipoli: In what will prove to be the last major offensive in the Gallipoli campaign, a force of New Zealand, Ghurka and (later) Australian troops launches the attack on “Hill 60”.


Armenian expulsions: Harrowing stories continue to emerge about the forced mass expulsion of Armenians through and out of Anatolia.



15th June 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Purwokerto on the Island of Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia ) – her mother a descendent of the Maharaja of Java,  of Hindu, Polish, German and French extraction, her father a Danish engineer – Nini Arlette Thielade, ballet dancer.


13th June 1915 (Sunday)

The 19th century is slowly passing away


~ RIP Viscount Nabeshima Naoyoshi, 13th and final daimyo of the Kashima Domain, in Hizen Province in the north west corner of the island of Kyushu, in south west Japan.


~ RIP Danish explorer Anders Christian Barclay Raunkiær, traveller to Riyadh and through eastern Arabia.


~ RIP Amédée William Merlaud-Ponty, Governor General of French West Africa.


17th February 1915 (Ash Wednesday)

Modern warfare is total, technological warfare

War from the air: German Zeppelin Z3 is brought down in Denmark and put permanently out of action by a storm. Also today, Zeppelin Z4 is taken out of service. Both aircraft have recently been involved in a raid on the coast of Norfolk, England,  late in January 1915.


War underground: On Hill 60 on the Ypres salient of the Western Front, the newly formed “mining” unit of the British Royal Engineers explode their first “deep mine” under German trenches, but it is not enough to enable them to take control of the hill.


War under the sea: In Quincy, Massachusets, the US navy lays down the new keels of L-class submarines L-10 and L-11.



War on every terrain: The British War Office experiments  today with an early form of tank based on a Holt tractor, but the caterpillar tracks become bogged down in the mud, and the project is abandoned, temporarily at least.


29th January, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Copenhagen – Halfdan Rasmussen, poet, resistance fighter and human rights activist.



Western Front: In the Argonne region of North East France, twenty three year old Lieutenant Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel earns an Iron Cross (his second) for leading his platoon in successful raids against French positions [Burg & Purcell].


9th December 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: In Copenhagen –  Max Manus, Norwegian-Danish migrant, ship-broker, seaman, adventurer, soldier, resistance fighter, escapee, wanderer, saboteur, guard to a Royal Family, recipient of Norwegian, English, Polish, American and Italian medals, and office machinery entrepreneur.



The Middle East: After a six day skirmish (the “Battle of Qurna”) Anglo-Indian forces take the city of Qurna, at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, from the Ottoman occupiers, thereby securing the British advance into Mesopotamia (now Southern Iraq).



Mining accidents: At the Scranton diamond mine in Pennsylvania, a lift carriage disintegrates and plunges several hundred feet into the shaft, killing 13 miners.



14th August 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Copenhagen – Poul Hartling, Prime Minister of Denmark from 1973 to 1975 and UN High Commissioner for Refugees from 1978 to 1985.



The Western Front: In Alsace and Lorraine, the French forces attack the German left and center, the start of the “Battle of Frontiers” which will culminate in the premature death of roughly 200,000 men from each side. “On the Road East… the French [soldiers] pass a stone marker inscribed ‘Here in the year 362 Jovinus defeated the Teutonic Hordes’ ” [Barbara Tuchman: “The Guns of August”].

The Eastern Front: In Sokal, in the Austro-Hungarian province of Galicia (later in Poland, then annexed by Germany, then annexed by the Soviet Union and now in western Ukraine) – Russian forces cross the River Bug and defeat a part of  the Austrian army, which retreats in the direction of Lemberg (now Lviv).

In the Mediterranean: The British (Hong Kong registered) cargo steamship SS Tatarrax is torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine while en route from Port Said to France.