22nd June 1915 (Tuesday)

EXPLORATION: Members of Ernest Shackleton’s Antarctic expedition celebrate mid-winter with a dinner on board HMS Endurance.

http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/midwinter-dinner-on-the-endurance-22nd-june-1915-during-the-news-photo/480802147

DIED TODAY: at  Bukovina (now split between Romania and Ukraine) – Ferenc Istvan Dénes Gyula Békássy, Cambridge graduate, Hungarian bi-lingual poet and Imperial Hussar. Killed in action, aged 22.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferenc_B%C3%A9k%C3%A1ssy

War!

Eastern Front: Austro-Hungarian forces recapture the city of Lemberg (Lwow/ Lviv) from the Russians.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1915/06/austro-hungarian-forces-recapture-the-city-of-lemberg-lvov-from-the-russians/

Africa: On the shores of Lake Victoria in German East Africa, the British 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers and others have launched an amphibious attack on Bukoba (“The Battle of Bukoba”) with the objective to destroy the German wireless station.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bukoba

12th January 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Boston, Massachusetts – Richard Evans Schultes, the “father of modern ethnobotany” and co-author of “The Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers” (1979). [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Evans_Schultes

Peace

Addiction: The R.J Reynolds tobacco company advertises its “Camel” brand in the New York Times: “You can’t buy a more delightful cigarette than Camels at any price”.

Women’s suffrage: The US House of Representatives votes, 204-174, to reject a constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote.

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/12/jan-12-1915-congress-votes-against-womens-suffrage-amendment/?_r=0

Exploration: In Antarctica, explorer Ernest Shackleton and his team spend part of their day photographing young empire penguins…

http://www.gettyimages.ae/detail/news-photo/young-emperor-penguin-chicks-12th-january-1915-during-the-news-photo/480801623

A farmer’s life: in New Zealand, sheep farmer George Adkin fills his day with raddle and “matted, yellow, broken fleeces”, and fills his mind with dreams of his beloved fiance, Maud.

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Topic/4878

Meanwhile – on a dairy farm in Kent, Connecticut, farmer’s daughter Lucy Seger records her routine today:

“30 [fahrenheit] above. Cold rain. It rained all day. I did housework same as usual. Made a cake. Nellie came down after milk. I cleaned house in morning and mother finished it in afternoon. She finished her ironing also. After dinner I went to Kent after children. I went to Watson’s and bought some outing flannel and apron gingham, twenty five cent of Xmas cards.”

http://www.onsegermountain.org/seger/

 

5th December 1914 (Saturday)

BORN  TODAY: in Paris, France – Odette Joyeux, “actress, playwright and novelist” [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odette_Joyeux

Exploration: In South Georgia, in the South Atlantic, Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition departs Grytviken whaling station, aboard the Endurance, in a bid to cross Antarctica from the Weddell Sea coast to the Ross Sea coast.

http://www.auroraexpeditions.com.au/shackleton-timeline

 

24th November 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in Lushnjë, Albania – Fahredin Nuri, hydraulic engineer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fahredin_Nuri

~ in London – Lynn Russell Chadwick, architect turned semi-abstract sculptor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynn_Chadwick

Exploration

Ernest Shackleton’s antarctic expedition photographs the Head of Moraine Fjord, South Georgia, in a silver bromide print which will later be presented to Britain’s King George V,

http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/2580048/head-of-moraine-fjord-south-georgia

8th August 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: In London, England – Unity Valkyrie Mitford, “an aristocratic English socialite who was a devotee of Adolf Hitler”.  [Wikipedia]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unity_Mitford

War!

Across Western Europe: Many thousands of the figthing men of many nations are converging on Belgium, Luxembourg and the Rhine…

In Eastern Europe: German soldiers are also pressing East through Poland, as Russian men move West…

In German East Africa: The British cruiser “Astraea” arrives off the coast and begins to shell Dar Es Salaam, landing a few troops for good measure. The ship’s captain and the local German authorities agree a truce, but neither of their Imperial masters are happy with the arrangement [Burg and Purcell: “Almanac of World War 1“].

In Britain, Parliament hastily introduces DORA – the Defence of the Realm Act, giving sweeping authoritarian powers to the Government:

”  ‘No person shall by word of mouth or in writing spread reports likely to cause disaffection or alarm among any of His Majesty’s forces or among the civilian population’.  The trivial peacetime activities no longer permitted included flying kites, starting bonfires, buying binoculars, feeding wild animals bread, discussing naval and military matters or buying alcohol on public transport. Alcoholic beverages were watered down and pub opening times were restricted to noon–3pm and 6:30pm–9:30pm (the requirement for an afternoon gap in permitted hours lasted in England until 1988).”  [quoted on Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defence_of_the_Realm_Act_1914

In British India: The first Indian troops involved in World War 1 leave India headed for Egypt, where the plan is to hold them in reserve (for example if more British troops are required in Europe). The reality will be different: they will join the Allied forces fighting on the Western Front.

http://www.black-history.org.uk/pavilionindian.asp

Peace:

Exploration: Sir Ernest Shackelton’s “Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914–17)”, also known as the “Endurance Expedition” leaves Plymouth, England, bound for Argentina, and ultimately for the Antarctic. The ship, “Endurance” , leaves without Sir Ernest, who is detained on expedition business but will join the expedition in Buenos Aires.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Trans-Antarctic_Expedition

15th July 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in the clachan of Elrig, in Scotland – Gavin Maxwell. A life so “less ordinary” that I cannot summarise it for you, but fortunately Wikipedia is here to help.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gavin_Maxwell

Though he passed away in 1969, aged just 55, he is survived and commemorated by the sub-species of Otter: Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli , one of whom he brought back from the marsh arabs of Southern Iraq and raised in Scotland, immortalising it in a novel.

Explorer Wilfred Thesiger later wrote:

“In 1956, Gavin Maxwell, who wished to write a book about the Marshes, came with me to Iraq, and I took him round in my tarada for seven weeks. He had always wanted an otter as a pet, and at last I found him a baby European otter which unfortunately died after a week, towards the end of his visit. He was in Basra preparing to go home when I managed to obtain another, which I sent to him. This, very dark in colour and about six weeks old, proved to be a new species. Gavin took it to England, and the species was named after him.” [Wikipedia]

(a tarada, by the way, is a large canoe used by the marsh arabs. Thanks again, Wikipedia)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarada

14th July 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Panama, Kenneth B Clark – psychologist who studied the effects of racial prejudice on children.

http://www.nndb.com/people/883/000115538/

World Affairs: In a telegram to the German Kaiser, Baron Tschirschky (the German Ambassador to Vienna) confirms that Hungarian premier, Count Tisza, has been brought around to the idea of war, and that the Austro-Hungarian authorities have decided to send an ultimatum to the Serbian government. The text will be ready by 19th July, but a decision has been made to delay issuing it until after the French President, Poincare, finishes his state visit to Russia, to reduce the likelihood of a quick and well coordinated reponse from Russia and France.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/julycrisis_kaiserscomments.htm

Exploration: In London’s docklands, the SS “Montcalm” arrives from Manitoba, Canada with a cargo of 99 “endurance dogs”. Each dog has travelled first by freight train from Winnipeg to Manitoba and each is caged individually. They are part of the preparations for Ernest Shackleton’s trans-Antarctic expedition. The “Endurance” will leave Plymouth, bound first for Buenos Aires, on 8th August.

http://www.enduranceobituaries.co.uk/thedogs.htm

Mysteries: The German cargo ship “Werner Kunstmann” founders on the Goswick Sands in England’s northern waters. “Reputed to have been scuppered following reports that she was on route to supply her cargo of iron ore to German factories which had been building up in their preparations for the start of World War 1. All 17crew were saved when the ship ran aground in fine weather on the Goswick sand ridge and was lost”. [The Berwick Advertiser].

http://www.berwick-advertiser.co.uk/news/district-news/then-and-now-german-ship-100-years-after-she-ran-aground-at-goswick-1-3401689

Womens’ Suffrage: Militant suffragette Maude Edwards is released from Perth prison on the grounds that “excitement is injurious to [her] health”.

http://www.scottisharchivesforschools.org/suffragettes/maudeEdwardsSource03.asp