22nd August 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Brantford, Ontario – James Hiller, co-developer of the electron microscope.

http://www.nndb.com/people/125/000206504/

War!

The (Russian) Home Front: The Tsar takes over supreme command of the army, and leaves St Petersburg in the dangerous hands of the Tsarina and her trusted advisor, Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin, a peasant and mystical faith healer.

http://www.johndclare.net/Russ_Rasputin_Figes.htm

The (French) Home Front: in the streets of Paris, young boys and girls play at being soldiers and nurses.

http://www.vintag.es/2015/04/kids-at-war-paris-1915-rare-photographs.html

The (Scottish) Home Front: in Aberdeen, 26,000 pay sixpence each to attend the “Gala and Heather day” in Duthie Park, in support of the Aberdeen Royal Infirmary.

http://www.friendsofduthiepark.co.uk/heather-day-at-duthie-park-a-century-on/

The (Irish) Home Front: In Dublin, at a “Celebration of gaelic and athletic events”, Patrick Pearse addresses the crowd of several thousand on his subject: “The Resurrection of Erin”.

http://www.millstreet.ie/blog/2015/08/19/patrick-pearse-and-his-visit-to-millstreet-on-22nd-aug-1915

1st August 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in the skies over the Western Front – The Fokker Scourge.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokker_Scourge

Ireland: At the funeral of exiled Irish Fenian Jeremiah O’Donovan Rosse, Pádraig Pearse gives “one of the most famous speeches of the Irish independence movement stirring his audience to a call to arms” [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeremiah_O%27Donovan_Rossa

The Funeral of Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa, 1st August 1915.

Some, at least, in Ireland, do not forget the call to arms:

https://www.facebook.com/therising2016

War!

In the Near East: the new (and incomplete) Germany to Baghdad railway begins transporting Armenians out of Anatolia and into Aleppo, now a (still troubled) city in Syria. Within 3 weeks, 20,000 are deported, and tales of abuse and atrocities are multiplying. [a report quoted in: “The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916”, by Bryce et al]

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=H0mfmdThGLAC&pg=PA556&lpg=PA556&dq=1st+august+1915&source=bl&ots=GIrjbyYxWc&sig=qQZGkXxAI0jTTVWfwZmdIsnB6Yc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBTh4ahUKEwiXs7zx7oDHAhVBkBQKHTvmA64#v=onepage&q=1st%20august%201915&f=false

12th July 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in the Pavlovsk Palace, the 18th-century Russian Imperial residence built by Paul I in Saint Petersburg  – Princess Catherine Ivanovna of Russia, great-great-granddaughter of Tsar Nicolas I and niece of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia: the last member of the Russian Imperial Family to be born before the fall of the dynasty, and ultimately the last surviving uncontested dynast of the Imperial House of Russia. She died in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 2007, aged 92.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princess_Catherine_Ivanovna_of_Russia

War!

Gallipoli: Allied forces make a final attempt to take the hill of Achi Baba which overlooks the places where many allied soldiers have been pinned for weeks.

“As was the norm with operations from Helles casualties were inordinately high.  The Allies incurred 4,000 casualties and the Turkish force rather more, 10,000.  For all that the Turkish force suffered twice as heavily the encounter nevertheless ended with possession of Achi Baba remaining in Turkish hands.”

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/achibaba_jul.htm

War at Sea: Off England’s east coast, the German submarine SM-UB6 has a productive day destroying four English fishing boats.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_July_1915

History, not fresh, but preserved and recycled: On the Western Front, Ulstermen from Northerl Ireland  and the Orangemen diaspora celebrate the Battle of the Boyne (1690)…

“We (the Canadians) all gathered together with a good many Ulstermen to celebrate the Battle of the Boyne. The procession started from “Shrapnel Square” and was headed by an old scout mounted on a white horse with its mane and tail plaited with Orange and Purple ribbon. Next came the fife and drums well decorated with Orange Lilies and “No Surrender” was painted on the flag we carried“.

http://www.grandorangelodge.co.uk/history.aspx?id=99487#.VZQZzBOqqko

8th June 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ In Jorhat in the British Raj (now in Assam in India) – Sonaram Chutia – fighter against casteism.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonaram_Chutia

~ in Aughnacloy, County Tyrone, in British Ireland (now part of Northern Ireland) – Sean McCaughey, metal worker, gaelic teacher and fighter against the British in Ireland.

http://republican-news.org/current/news/2015/05/sean_mccaughey.html#.VXMbq1yqqko

~ In Lwow (caught at the time between Russian and Austrian forces, later in Poland, and now in Western Ukraine) – Witold Lanowski,  fighter pilot against the Nazis in the Polish, British and US air forces.

http://witoldlanowski.com/early-career.html

7th May, 1915 (Friday)

War!

War at Sea: Fifteen miles from the Irish coast, a German submarine torpedoes the passenger Liner, Lusitania, sending nearly 1200 passengers and crew to a watery grave, including 128 from the USA, still a neutral country.

http://www.rte.ie/news/player/2015/0503/20773263-centenary-of-sinking-of-lusitania-marked-in-courtmacsherry/

 

3rd May 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY:

~ In Galway, County Galway – Walter Macken, Irish novelist – “Rain on the Wind”.

~ In New York, New York State – Betty Comden, American screenwriter – “Singing in the Rain”.

http://www.galwaycitymuseum.ie/calendar-of-events/

http://www.nndb.com/people/481/000173959/

16th March 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: In the US of A – the Federal Trade Commission, “Protecting America’s Consumers”. Happy Centenary, FTC!

https://www.ftc.gov/about-ftc/our-history

War!

Irish British: The 1st Battalion of the Royal Munster Fusiliers departs from Avonmouth in the west of England, bound for the Dardanelles and Gallipoli.

http://www.irishfamilyroots.com/royalmunsterfusiliers.html

Society and culture:

~ In England’s west country the Exeter and Plymouth gazette runs a short piece advertising the attractions of the “City Palace” (cinema):

“The City Palace, Exeter, has again a splendid selection of pictures for the first half of this week. The star film, “The Swan Song,” is a thrilling drama in two acts, the battle scene connected with it being of a most realistic character. Pathe’s Animated Gazette” again delights everyone. It depicts the Canadians second draft at drill, and the inspection of the Australians in England, showing what physically fit men our Colonies are loyally sending to the defence of the Motherland. The “Gazette” also gives an illustration of the Australians in Egypt in training by the Pyramids. “The Rescue” and ‘”The Love of Pierre Lacrosse” are both very fine dramas. The comic side of the programme provided for by “A Coat’s Tale” and “She Married for Love,” each of which is enough by itself to keep one merry and bright.” [www.exetermemories.co.uk]

http://www.exetermemories.co.uk/em/_events/1915-this-week.php

~ In France, the Government outlaws both the production and the retail sale of absinthe, declaring it a “toxic product”. (Protecting France’s consumers?).

http://www.absinthes.com/themag/absinthe-history/banning-absinthe-1714

1st February 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Seymour Street, Wellington, Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent, England –  Sir Stanley Matthews CBE, “footballer and gentleman”. [commemorative plaque on the wall of number 89].

http://www.thepotteries.org/photo_wk/069.htm

http://www.mapsofworld.com/sports/football/players/stanley-matthews.html

War!

Eastern Front: At the (continuing) Battle of Bolimov, the German ninth army advances six miles today against Russian forces, before being driven back the same distance by the Russians. The total human “cost” for this movement is 20,000 german losses and 40,000 russians. Sixty thousand men.  [Burg & Purcell].

Irish valour:

The first ever British (Irish) soldier to receive the Victoria Cross (for his bravery in the Crimea in the 1850s), Major General Luke O’Connor, originally from Elphin in County Roscommon, dies today – aged 84 – in London.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luke_O%27Connor

Also today, Lance Corporal Michael O’Leary, originally from Cork, single-handedly captures two german machine gun posts at Cuinchy in northern France, subsequently receiving the Victoria Cross for his bravery.

http://www.irishcentral.com/roots/genealogy/Lance-Corporal-Michael-OLeary-a-true-Irish-hero.html

26th January 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Colorado, USA – The Rocky Mountain National Park, a “huge expanse of scenic rugged terrain” [Google maps].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocky_Mountain_National_Park

War!

Transcaucasian Front, and beyond: In Sufian in Persia (now in Eastern Azerbaijan province in Iran) Russian forces under General Chernozubov overpower Turkish forces, enabling the Russians to re-establish local control and authority in Tabriz, ignoring Persia’s declared neutrality.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_Campaign

Peace:

Taxation blues: In Dublin, in (British) Ireland, Mr Richard Reeve Smythe of Griffin Lodge is being prosecuted for refusing to pay his motor tax, as required of motor owners under the provisions of the Motor Tax Licence Duties Collection Order, 1910. My Smythe’s legal council questions the validity of the tax, noting that “motorists across Ireland rarely paid it to their county councils and prosecutions were like angel visits, few and far between” [RTE century ireland].

http://www.rte.ie/centuryireland/articles/validity-of-motor-tax-queried

16th January 1915 (Saturday)

From the blog: “History is what we choose to remember”

America’s Gift of Toys

“There was an unusual scene in the Council Chamber of the Town Hall [today] when, by the kind permission of the Mayor of Limerick, and in his presence, nearly 400 wives of soldiers and sailors serving at the front, with the Fleet, or in training, assembled to receive gifts for their children from the children of the United States of America, and from Limerick friends”

https://limerick100.wordpress.com/2015/01/08/americas-gift-of-toys-january-1915/