7th September 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Milan – Maria Corti, Italian philologist, literary critic and novelist, “considered one of the leading literary scholars of post-World War II Italy”, despite that her “early academic career coincided with Italian Fascism and was curtailed by laws which prohibited women from holding university or liceo teaching positions”. [Wikipedia]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Corti

War!

War from the Air: A German zeppelin air raid on east and south east London bombs residential areas, killing civilians, including women and children.

http://lewishamwarmemorials.wikidot.com/incident:7-september-1915

http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/78-sept-1915-1/4587505645

26th August 1915 (Thursday)

BORN TODAY: In Soave, near Verona – Sandro Ruffo, “one of the preeminent Italian zoologists, the only Museum curator belonging to the “Accademia dei Lincei”, and one of the most important amphipodologists in the world. He was professor of Zoology at Modena University, the director of the Natural History Museum of Verona, and was also presented with a Degree Honoris Causa in Conservation and Management of Natural Resources in 2007.”

http://www.pensoft.net/inc/journals/download.php?fileId=1999&fileTable

4th August 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Berlin – Eleonore “Loni” Nest, German child star actress who ended her career after more than 40 movies at the age of 13, before retiring to the south of France [Wikipedia]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loni_Nest

War!

Adriatic skullduggery: The Triple Alliance  (Britain, France and Russia) reneges on its secret commitment to Italy (that control of parts of the Adriatic coast should only be decided after the war) by sending an official note to Serbia confirming the post-war territorial claims of Serbia and Montenegro. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_London_(1915)

3rd August 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: Roman Fischer, an Austrian fencer, and  Arthur Birch, an Australian chemist.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Fischer

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Birch_(organic_chemist)

War!

On the Italian Front: After 91,000 casualties the Second Battle of Isonzo on the Italian/ Austrian border (now the Soca valley in north west Slovenia) draws to a close because both sides have run out of ammunition, both for small arms and for artillery. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_the_Isonzo

On the (Belgian) Home Front: British nurse Edith Cavell, who has been based in Brussels for many years, is arrested by the German authorities on suspicion of helping British, French and Belgian soldiers and citizens to escape from German occupied Belgium.

http://primaryfacts.com/2780/edith-cavell-facts-and-information/

26th July 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Nidubrolu in Andhra Pradesh, British India – Pragada Kotaiah, freedom fighter and parliamentarian.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragada_Kotaiah

War!

Socialism in Italy: a “rising star” of the Italian socialist party, one Benito Mussolini, expresses the view that “Italian workers should give ‘not a penny’ to the cause of war, nor spill ‘one drop of blood’ for a cause that had ‘nothing to do with it’. If the government failed to declare neutrality, the proletatriat would force it to do so”. [Mark Thompson: “The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919”].

Fire in Constantinople:  A great fire in Istanbul, later attributed to Russian areoplane bombing, destroys over 3000 buildings.

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=WC19150825.2.49.3

Submarines in the Dardanelles: the French submarine “Mariotte” is sunk by the Ottoman Navy, and its crew taken as prisoners of war.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_July_1915

Discipline on the Western Front: in the largest single judicial execution by the British during the war, 5 members of the 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment are executed on the ramparts of Ypres.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn

18th July 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: to Robert Francis Le Bailly and Ida Gaskell Le Bailly (née Holland) – Vice Admiral Sir Louis Edward Stewart Holland Le Bailly, KBE, CB.  “In retirement he was appointed Director-General of Intelligence at the Ministry of Defence… Later he became vice chairman of the Institute for Study of Conflict, and chairman of the Civil Service Selection Board”. [Wikipedia]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Le_Bailly

World Affairs: US President Woodrow Wilson sends US forces to Haiti in an attempt to prevent Germany or France from taking it over. Haiti controls the Windward Passage to the Panama Canal and is seen as strategically critical. The Haitian government is near insolvency at this time and is significantly in debt to foreign corporations. German companies control almost 80 percent of Haitian trade. US forces will occupy the country until 1934.

http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=haiti_538

War!

War at Sea: the Austrian submarine U4 torpedoes  the Italian armoured cruiser “Guiseppe Garibalidi”. which sinks in 3 minutes.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk15.htm

 

7th July 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Birmingham, Alabama – Margaret Abigail Walker, novelist and poet.

http://www.nndb.com/people/832/000114490/

Extreme Weather: A violent storm kills at least 38 people in Cincinatti, Ohio. “An uncertain number of people drowned in overturned boats in the Ohio River.”

http://ohsweb.ohiohistory.org/swio/pages/content/1915_winds.htm

War!

On the Southern Front: The first battle of the Isonzo, between Italian and Austro-Hungarian forces, draws to a close after two weeks.

“The first battle of the Isonzo cost the Italians 14,947 casualties, including 1,500 men taken prisoner. The Austrians lost 9,948 men, a higher proportion of their army on the Isonzo, but not enough to win the Italians a breakthrough. The search for that breakthrough would result in ten more Italian attacks on the Isonzo, none of which would achieve the decisive breakthrough.” [www.historyofwar.org]

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_isonzo1.html

2nd July, 1915 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in Rome – Brigadier Arthur Valerian Wellesley: 8th Duke of Wellington; 8th Prince of Waterloo; 9th Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo; Eton; Oxford; Royal Horse Guards; Household Cavalry Regiment; KG (Most Noble Order of the Garter);  OBE (Most Excellent Order of the British Empire); MC (Military Cross); Deputy Colonel-in-Chief of the Yorkshire Regiment (deputy to the Duke of York); Deputy Colonel to the Blues and Royals (deputy to Her Royal Highness, the Princess Royal); and Honorary Colonel of the 2nd Battalion Wessex Regiment.

In short, a pukka toff.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Valerian_Wellesley,_8th_Duke_of_Wellington

War!

On the British home front: the UK Parliament passes the Munitions of War Act, giving it sweeping powers for compulsory arbitration of industrial disputes; to ban strikes and lock-outs; to limit profits; and declare any factory a “controlled operation”, and with powers to approve all wage changes etc. [Burg & Purcell].

On the American home front: German-American Erich Muenter, also known as Erich Holt or  Frank Holt, plants and explodes a bomb in the US Senate in Washington DC.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Muenter

23rd June 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Mayfair, London – Robin “Monty” Montgomerie-Charrington, formula 1 racing driver.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Montgomerie-Charrington

War!

The Isonzo Front: The Italian Third Army launches a mjor offensive against Austro-Hungarian forces along a 21 mile front stretching inland from the Adriatic. [Burg & Purcell].

East Africa: After British forces successfully destroy the German wireless station and arsenal at Bukoba, in German East Africa, “Brigadier General James Stewart grants his troops permission to loot Bukoba. The men, joined by their officers, go on a shameless, drunken orgy of vandalism, rape and pillage” [Burg & Purcell]…

…British papers reported the events differently…

As it was not intended to hold Bukoba, the force re-embarked on June 23rd, leaving the town “a sorry sight, and being plundered and looted by the local inhabitants who swarmed in to complete the enemy’s discomfiture”.

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=160859

Spy!  at 6.00AM in the “miniature rifle range” at the Tower of London, German spy Carl Muller is executed by a firing squad of 8 riflemen.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/carl_muller.htm

31st May 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Canberra – Judith Wright, poet, environmentalist and campaigner for aboriginal land rights.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judith_Wright

War!

In Turkish Mesopotamia (now Iraq, allegedly) – British and Indian troops are pushing back the Turks as the Allied forces advance northward in an amphibious operation on the River Tigris. [Burg & Purcell]

On the Austrian Isonzo river in the Julian alps (now the Soca River in Slovenia), Italian forces are attempting to push back Austrian troops and to advance eastward into the province of Carnolia (northern Slovenia). [Burg & Purcell]