14th July 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Panama, Kenneth B Clark – psychologist who studied the effects of racial prejudice on children.


World Affairs: In a telegram to the German Kaiser, Baron Tschirschky (the German Ambassador to Vienna) confirms that Hungarian premier, Count Tisza, has been brought around to the idea of war, and that the Austro-Hungarian authorities have decided to send an ultimatum to the Serbian government. The text will be ready by 19th July, but a decision has been made to delay issuing it until after the French President, Poincare, finishes his state visit to Russia, to reduce the likelihood of a quick and well coordinated reponse from Russia and France.


Exploration: In London’s docklands, the SS “Montcalm” arrives from Manitoba, Canada with a cargo of 99 “endurance dogs”. Each dog has travelled first by freight train from Winnipeg to Manitoba and each is caged individually. They are part of the preparations for Ernest Shackleton’s trans-Antarctic expedition. The “Endurance” will leave Plymouth, bound first for Buenos Aires, on 8th August.


Mysteries: The German cargo ship “Werner Kunstmann” founders on the Goswick Sands in England’s northern waters. “Reputed to have been scuppered following reports that she was on route to supply her cargo of iron ore to German factories which had been building up in their preparations for the start of World War 1. All 17crew were saved when the ship ran aground in fine weather on the Goswick sand ridge and was lost”. [The Berwick Advertiser].


Womens’ Suffrage: Militant suffragette Maude Edwards is released from Perth prison on the grounds that “excitement is injurious to [her] health”.



30th October 1913 (Thursday)


~ In Berlin, Germany – Hans Berndt, International Footballer

~ In Stockton-On-Tees, England – Michael “Micky” Fenton, International Footballer

~ In Ellendale, North Dakota, USA – Bob Pylman, American Footballer.




Arms Race: On the River Medway in Kent, England, the British Royal Navy Launches its latest submarine – HMS E8.


Society and culture: Ernest Jones establishes the London Psychoanalytical Society, which will be renamed the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1919.


29th October 1913 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in East Preston, Sussex, England – Oliver Louis Zangwill, influential British neuropsychologist and  Professor Emeritus at Cambridge, after whom the Oliver Zangwill Centre for specialist rehabilitation after brain injury (in Cambridge, England) is named.


Society and culture: V.I.Lenin publishes his paper, “Capitalism and Workers’ migration” in Pravda:  “Emancipation from the yoke of capital is impossible without the further development of capitalism, and without the class struggle that is based on it. And it is into this struggle that capitalism is drawing the masses of the working people of the whole world, breaking down the musty, fusty habits of local life, breaking down national barriers and prejudices, uniting workers from all countries in huge factories and mines in America, Germany, and so forth.”


~ In South Africa, as part of ongoing protests against the treatment of Indian labourers, Mahatma  Gandhi begins leading strikers (illegally) over the Transvaal border along the Durban/Johannesburg railway line.Hundreds of men, women and children led by Gandhi march from Newcastle into the Transvaal to purposefully defy the Immigrants Regulation Act of 1913.


~ In Wellington, New Zealand, as part of the ongoing “Great Strike”,  more than a thousand strikers brake through the gates of the Basin Reserve, where they hold a protest meeting.


Ancient migrations:  In Balreegan Quarry in Scotland, a Roman coin hoard is discovered in a small earthenware jug about 3 1/2″ high, consisting of 125 brass coins ranging from Constantine I to Decentines. The hoard is believed to have been concealed around 354 AD.


27th September 1913 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Pittsburgh PA – Albert Ellis, menswear, gift and novelty salesman turned psychologist. PhD in clinical psychology from Columbia in 1947. Famous quotes included: “neurosis is just a high-class word for whining” and “Freud was full of horseshit”.


World Affairs: at the Balmoral show-ground in the north of Ireland, Sir Edward Carson reviews a massive parade of the “Ulster Volunteers” (estimated at 12,000 men). Also today, a provisional loyalist government is proclaimed for the counties of Ulster.


Meanwhile, further south, in Dublin, the SS Hare arrives from Salford with its famous cargo of foodstuffs for the City’s strikers, a gift from the British Trades Union Congress.


Society and Culture: The SS MInnehaha of the Atlantic Transport Line sails from Liverpool bound for New York. Captain “Congenial” Claret is supported by Chief Engineer “Blonde”, Chief Steward “Old” and Surgeon “Noisy”. The first class passenger list includes such notables as “The Holy Terror”  “The Frog”  “The Early Victorian”  “the Beauty” “The Angel” “Very Stout” and Mr John G Rollins, a “weapons exporter based in London”.

You couldn’t make it up… or could you?


Sport: At Manchester United’s “Old Trafford” football (soccer) ground in Britain, the visitors Oldham Athletic play in front of their largest crowd for a league fixture – 55,000 spectators. The record will not be broken until 1975 when the “Latics” are once again visiting the Old Trafford ground.


Medicine: The “Lancet” medical journal publishes an article from the recent joint session of the sections of Dermatology and Syphilography and of Forensic Medicine at the Seventeenth International Congress of Medicine, London – “Syphilis: Its dangers to the community, and the question of state control”.