22nd June 1915 (Tuesday)

EXPLORATION: Members of Ernest Shackleton’s Antarctic expedition celebrate mid-winter with a dinner on board HMS Endurance.

http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/midwinter-dinner-on-the-endurance-22nd-june-1915-during-the-news-photo/480802147

DIED TODAY: at  Bukovina (now split between Romania and Ukraine) – Ferenc Istvan Dénes Gyula Békássy, Cambridge graduate, Hungarian bi-lingual poet and Imperial Hussar. Killed in action, aged 22.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferenc_B%C3%A9k%C3%A1ssy

War!

Eastern Front: Austro-Hungarian forces recapture the city of Lemberg (Lwow/ Lviv) from the Russians.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1915/06/austro-hungarian-forces-recapture-the-city-of-lemberg-lvov-from-the-russians/

Africa: On the shores of Lake Victoria in German East Africa, the British 25th (Frontiersmen) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers and others have launched an amphibious attack on Bukoba (“The Battle of Bukoba”) with the objective to destroy the German wireless station.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bukoba

20th June 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Hamburg – SM UC-6, a German  minelayer submarine.  In just over two years she will sink over 50 ships before herself being destroyed in September 1917.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_UC-6

War!

Eastern Front: At the Battle of Lemberg, German & Austro-Hungarian forces lauch an attack to re-take the city and the Austrian fortress lost to the Russians in 1914 (later Lwów in Poland, now Lviv in Ukraine).

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_lemberg1915.html

Across Empires: in St John’s on the Island of St. Pierre et Miquelon ( a vestige of the colony of New France off the Atlantic coast of Canada) 242 Canadian recruits of “F” company embark on HM Troopship Calgarian, bound for Liverpool and the war in Europe, including Inuit and Métis volunteers from Labrador.

http://www.heritage.nf.ca/first-world-war/articles/aboriginals-first-world-war.php

8th June 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ In Jorhat in the British Raj (now in Assam in India) – Sonaram Chutia – fighter against casteism.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonaram_Chutia

~ in Aughnacloy, County Tyrone, in British Ireland (now part of Northern Ireland) – Sean McCaughey, metal worker, gaelic teacher and fighter against the British in Ireland.

http://republican-news.org/current/news/2015/05/sean_mccaughey.html#.VXMbq1yqqko

~ In Lwow (caught at the time between Russian and Austrian forces, later in Poland, and now in Western Ukraine) – Witold Lanowski,  fighter pilot against the Nazis in the Polish, British and US air forces.

http://witoldlanowski.com/early-career.html

26th May 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: – On Piccadilly Circus, London – the Regent Palace Hotel – with 1,028 rooms, the largest hotel in Europe.

War!

On the (British) Home Front: Three die after Southend, a town to the east of London, is bombed by Zeppelin LZ-38.

http://www.iancastlezeppelin.co.uk/26th-may/4585986727

On the (German) Home Front:  The French airforce bomb the German chlorine gas and acid factory at Ludwigshafen releasing clouds of gas over parts of the city of Mannheim.  [Burg & Purcell].

On the (Russian) Home Front: In Moscow, the start of three days of rioting targeting ethnic germans, and foreigners more generally, brings Russia’s second city to  “a chaotic orgy of looting, arson, destruction, and violence that observers saw as akin to civil war or revolution. Approximately eight were killed and 40 seriously injured by the rioters [before] the troops finally intervened on 29 May.”

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25th May 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ in New South Wales – Taree golf club.

~ In Derbyshire – George William Lowe, English cricketer.

http://tareerslandgolf.com.au/celebrating-100-years-of-taree-golf-club-1915-2015/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Lowe_%28cricketer,_born_1915%29

 

World Affairs: In the Treaty of Kyakhta, Russia and China recognise the autonomy of Outer Mongolia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Kyakhta_%281915%29

War!

In the Dardanelles: 78 men drown when HMS Triumph is torpedoed by the German U-boat, U21.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk15.htm

24th May 1915 (Monday)

Turkey’s war!

Gallipoli: a brief truce is arranged between the warring nations so that the thousands of dead on both sides can be buried.

http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/pt/digitalnz/record/1206500

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/photograph/34113/gallipoli-armistice

Anatolian atrocities: In response to growing tales of forced marches and massacres of Armenians in Anatolia by the Turkish government, the foreign ministers of the Triple Entente (France, Russia and Britain) issue a proclamation vowing that Young Turk (party) leadership would be held responsible for “these new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization”.  In response, the Turkish cabinet three days later approves the “Provisional Law of Relocation” by which the army is “authorised and compelled to crush in the most severe way any sign of resistance or aggression among the population… including to transfer and relocate the populations of villages and towns, either individually or collectively in response to military needs or…any signs of treachery or betrayal”  

“By best estimate, some 800,000 of the Armenian deportees were to perish – starved, shot, or beaten to death – en route [to the] “barren reaches of northern Syria”.

[Scott Anderson: “Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East”]

http://www.armenian-genocide.org/Affirmation.160/current_category.7/affirmation_detail.html

17th May 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Zurich – Marcel Roland de Quervain, Swiss glaciologist, “known for his fundamental work on the metamorphism and physical properties of snow.”

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/487087/Marcel-Roland-de-Quervain

War!

Anatolia: In the Armenian city of Van, in eastern Turkey, the one month long siege of the city by Ottoman forces intent on suppressing Armenian activists is relieved by the arrival of Russian troops from the city of Malazgirt, temporarily under Russian control.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defense_of_Van_%281915%29

On the (British) Home Front: The Liberal Government (Asquith’s first ministry) is brought down by high levels of unpopularity, partly fuelled by the continuing failures at Gallipoli.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_Government_1905%E2%80%9315