12th January 1915 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Boston, Massachusetts – Richard Evans Schultes, the “father of modern ethnobotany” and co-author of “The Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers” (1979). [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Evans_Schultes

Peace

Addiction: The R.J Reynolds tobacco company advertises its “Camel” brand in the New York Times: “You can’t buy a more delightful cigarette than Camels at any price”.

Women’s suffrage: The US House of Representatives votes, 204-174, to reject a constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote.

http://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/12/jan-12-1915-congress-votes-against-womens-suffrage-amendment/?_r=0

Exploration: In Antarctica, explorer Ernest Shackleton and his team spend part of their day photographing young empire penguins…

http://www.gettyimages.ae/detail/news-photo/young-emperor-penguin-chicks-12th-january-1915-during-the-news-photo/480801623

A farmer’s life: in New Zealand, sheep farmer George Adkin fills his day with raddle and “matted, yellow, broken fleeces”, and fills his mind with dreams of his beloved fiance, Maud.

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Topic/4878

Meanwhile – on a dairy farm in Kent, Connecticut, farmer’s daughter Lucy Seger records her routine today:

“30 [fahrenheit] above. Cold rain. It rained all day. I did housework same as usual. Made a cake. Nellie came down after milk. I cleaned house in morning and mother finished it in afternoon. She finished her ironing also. After dinner I went to Kent after children. I went to Watson’s and bought some outing flannel and apron gingham, twenty five cent of Xmas cards.”

http://www.onsegermountain.org/seger/

 

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12th December 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Haworth, Yorkshire, England – Frank Roper, sculptor and stained-glass artist.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Roper

War!

The Commercial Instinct: In Britain, the “Daily Mirror” newspaper is advertising “War Souvenir Xmas Presents” – in solid silver… “beautifully enamelled, correct colours, complete in souvenir cases and post free” – for sending to loved ones at the front.

http://www.worldwar1postcards.com/christmas-postcards.php

Global Finance: In New York, the stock market re-opens for trading in equities after a closure of over four months, but later claims that it experiences its biggest ever one day fall in the Dow Jones Index today are incorrect – and are based on a later, 1916, retrospective, definition of the shares listed in the index in 1914. The index of 12 stocks actually rises today, by 4.4% – Lies, damned lies and statistics…

http://www.nytimes.com/1987/10/26/business/setting-the-record-straight-on-the-dow-drop.html

Peace: 

Women’s Suffrage: The Committee of the British Physiological Society passes a new rule “that
women be eligible for membership of the Society and have the same rights, duties and privileges as men.” [Physiological Society web-site]

http://www.physoc.org/sites/default/files/page/Info_Sheet_Amittance_of_women.pdf

 

1st August 1914 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Belfast, in British Ireland – Cecil Allan – (Northern) Irish footballer.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecil_Allan

WAR!

The French and German governments both order full mobilization, and – before any declaration of war – German troops cross the border into Luxembourg to secure strategic railroad and telegraph locations.

In Berlin, the crowds who have been waiting apprehensively to hear whether Russia will accept the German ultimatum to stop its mobilization process (deadline 5.00pm today) are “electric with rumour”.  When the order to mobilize comes the crowd is “instantly converted from Marx to Mars”  by their “instinctive fear and hatred of the Slavic hordes… From the moment the order was given, everything was to move at fixed time according to a schedule precise down to the number of train axles that would pass over a given bridge within a given time“. [Barbara Tuchman: “The Guns of August”].

At seven in the evening in St Petersburg (shortly to be renamed Petrograd, to rid it of its germanic sounding name) Germany declares war on Russia because “Jurists at the [German] Foreign Office insisted it was legally the correct thing to do” [Tuchman]

In Britain, First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill orders the immediate seizure in the shipbuilders’ yards of two battleships which are being built for the Turkish Government, the finances for which have been raised by severe taxation and public subscription of the Turkish people. Turkey, which has not yet indicated its position in the coming conflict, is outraged. [Almanac of World War 1].

Also in Britain, where the government is split on whether or not to support France against Germany,  the Governor of the Bank of England (the Central Bank) phones Lloyd George, the Chancellor of the Exchequer (Finance Minister) to tell him that the “City” (London’s financial interests) are “totally opposed to our intervening”. [Tuchman].

PEACE?

Women’s suffrage: In Lisburn, in the North of British Ireland, a group of suffragettes attempt to blow up Lisburn Cathedral.

http://www.lisburntoday.co.uk/news/local-news/the-woman-who-tried-to-blow-up-the-cathedral-1-5014290

 

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Guns-August-Classic-Bestselling-Outbreak-ebook/dp/B00IB43Q6C/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1404478017&sr=1-1&keywords=the+guns+of+august

 

 

14th July 1914 (Tuesday)

BORN TODAY: in Panama, Kenneth B Clark – psychologist who studied the effects of racial prejudice on children.

http://www.nndb.com/people/883/000115538/

World Affairs: In a telegram to the German Kaiser, Baron Tschirschky (the German Ambassador to Vienna) confirms that Hungarian premier, Count Tisza, has been brought around to the idea of war, and that the Austro-Hungarian authorities have decided to send an ultimatum to the Serbian government. The text will be ready by 19th July, but a decision has been made to delay issuing it until after the French President, Poincare, finishes his state visit to Russia, to reduce the likelihood of a quick and well coordinated reponse from Russia and France.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/julycrisis_kaiserscomments.htm

Exploration: In London’s docklands, the SS “Montcalm” arrives from Manitoba, Canada with a cargo of 99 “endurance dogs”. Each dog has travelled first by freight train from Winnipeg to Manitoba and each is caged individually. They are part of the preparations for Ernest Shackleton’s trans-Antarctic expedition. The “Endurance” will leave Plymouth, bound first for Buenos Aires, on 8th August.

http://www.enduranceobituaries.co.uk/thedogs.htm

Mysteries: The German cargo ship “Werner Kunstmann” founders on the Goswick Sands in England’s northern waters. “Reputed to have been scuppered following reports that she was on route to supply her cargo of iron ore to German factories which had been building up in their preparations for the start of World War 1. All 17crew were saved when the ship ran aground in fine weather on the Goswick sand ridge and was lost”. [The Berwick Advertiser].

http://www.berwick-advertiser.co.uk/news/district-news/then-and-now-german-ship-100-years-after-she-ran-aground-at-goswick-1-3401689

Womens’ Suffrage: Militant suffragette Maude Edwards is released from Perth prison on the grounds that “excitement is injurious to [her] health”.

http://www.scottisharchivesforschools.org/suffragettes/maudeEdwardsSource03.asp

 

8th July 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY:

~ In Calcutta (now Kolkata) in British India – “Comrade Jyoti Basu, the last surviving member of the first polit bureau of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPIM) and the former Chief Minister of the state of West Bengal” [Proletarian online]

http://www.cpgb-ml.org/index.php?secName=proletarian&subName=display&art=593

~ in Killowen, Kinsale, County Cork, Ireland – Sister Rose (Anne Mary) Lynch, teacher of religion, history, english, french and music [Dominican Sisters of Saint Catherine of Siena Newcastle Natal].

http://dominicansisters.co.uk/november-2/

~ In Pittsburgh, PA – William Clarence (“Billy”) Eckstein – “the first African-American singing idol” [NNDB].

http://www.nndb.com/people/912/000047771/

In Grand Rapids, Michigan – Barbara Louise Karduz, daughter, wife, mother, grandmother.

http://www.wittichfuneralhome.com/obituary/125611/Barbara-Kardux/

Womens’ suffrage:  From the Glasgow Herald, 9th July 1914:

“A dastardly attempt was made in the early hours of yesterday morning by suffragists to fire and blow up Burns’s Cottage, Alloway, the birthplace of the national poet, which is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims from all parts of the world. The attempted outrage was fortunately frustrated by the timely appearance on the scene of the night watchman, but the fact that an attempt was made to destroy a shrine that Scotsmen in all parts of the world regard as sacred has roused in the locality the most intense indignation.”

After further investigation the arsonist, Janet Parker, is discovered to be the niece of the First Earl Kitchener, soon to be appointed the UK’s Secretary of State (Minister) for War.

http://digital.nls.uk/scotlandspages/timeline/1914.html

 

3rd July 1914 (Friday)

BORN TODAY: in London – Leueen MacGrath, London and Broadway actress.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leueen_MacGrath

~ Also Marmaduke Pattle, South African and Royal (British) Air Force fighter pilot shot down and killed in action near Athens, Greece, in April 1941, aged 26.

http://spartacus-educational.com/2WWpattleM.htm

World Affairs: At the Simla conference in India, where the British are attempting to separate China and Tibet, the Chinese representative refuses to sign the final accord, which is signed only by Britain and Tibet.

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Simla_Accord_(1914)

Women’s suffrage: In Edinburgh’s Sheriff Court there are “stormy scenes” as suffragette Maude Edwards is charged with slashing a portrait of the King in the Royal Scottish Academy. Later in the day she is admitted to Perth Prison.

http://www.scottisharchivesforschools.org/suffragettes/maudeEdwardsSource02.asp

http://www.scottisharchivesforschools.org/suffragettes/maudeEdwardsSource03.asp

24th June 1914 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: Cecile Pearl Witherington (later Corniole), Alias “Agent Wrestler” – British spy, codename “Marie” who parachuted (back) into France in September 1943. Recommended for a military cross after the war, but ineligible on the grounds of her gender. Offered the (civil) MBE medal, she refused it, with the comment: “there was nothing remotely ‘civil’ about what I did.” [Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pearl_Witherington

http://www.amazon.co.uk/Code-Name-Pauline-Memoirs-Special-ebook/dp/B00DQ75NQA/ref=sr_1_2?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1402417842&sr=1-2&keywords=pauline

Women’s suffrage: In Nottingham, in England’s Midlands, the King and Queen are visiting the local lace market as part of a three day tour.  Suffragette Irene/ Eileen Casey, already wanted by the police, is arrested nearby in possession of explosives, fusewire, detonators and a map showing the main area of the Royal visit.

http://womenshistorynetwork.org/blog/?p=2591