6th September 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: Little Willie – the world’s first tank.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-tank-produced

Society and culture: Scotland appoints Ms Emily Miller as its first ever policewoman.

http://www.chrislongmuir.co.uk/index.php/my-blog/35-first-policewoman-in-scotland-100-years-ago

War!

The Balkans: Bulgaria signs a military agreement with Germany agreeing to enter on the side of the Central Powers. In return for sending forces against Serbia and Montenegro (thereby re-opening the unresolved business of the recent Second Balkan War), Bulgaria is promised large parts of Macedonia, a sea port on the Adriatic and territorial concessions in European Turkey. [Burg & Purcell: “Almanac of World War 1”]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgaria%E2%80%93Germany_treaty_(1915)

30th August 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: In Swansea, Wales – Lillian May Davies, fashion model, and later Princess Lilian, Duchess of Halland, after her marriage into the Swedish Royal Family in 1976.

http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Princess_Lilian,_Duchess_of_Halland

DIED TODAY:

~ On the Thames Estuary in Purfleet, Essex – 16 cadets and their training officer on His Majesty’s Training Ship “Cornwall” when it is struck by a government tug.

https://www.thurrock.gov.uk/news/museum-and-heritage/marking-great-war-disaster-at-purfleet

~ in Mardin, near (what is now) the Turkish/ Syrian border, Ignatius Abded Mshiho II, the 61 year old Patriarch of Antioch, Head of the Syriac Orthodox Church.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignatius_Abded_Mshiho_II

~ At Gallipoli – Brigadier General P.A.Kenna VC DSO, 21st Lancers, 3rd Mounted Brigade and Lewis Leonard Grant, a labourer from Allansford, Victoria, Australia… and many others.

http://battlefields1418.50megs.com/lala_baba_cemetery.htm

https://www.aif.adfa.edu.au/showPerson?pid=116811

28th August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Boston, Massachusetts – Starling Burgess, better known as Tasha Tudor, illustrator and writer of children’s books.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tasha_Tudor

War!

On the (Turkish) home front: In the town of Cizre, near the Syrian border, the authorities execute Philippe-Jacques Abraham, an ethnic Assyrian Bishop of the Chaldean Catholic Church, and Flavianus Michael Malke, the Syrian Catholic eparch, before having their bodies dragged through the streets of Cizre.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe-Jacques_Abraham

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavianus_Michael_Malke

21st August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY: in Copenhagen – Anna Rachel Rastén, the Danish singer better known as Raquel Rastenni.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raquel_Rastenni

MODERN AGRICULTURE: In California, the Pacific Rural Press reports on a Texan farmer’s recent success in breeding “Cattelo”, a hybrid cattle and buffalo stock.

http://cdnc.ucr.edu/cgi-bin/cdnc?a=d&d=PRP19150821.2.30#

War!

Gallipoli: In what will prove to be the last major offensive in the Gallipoli campaign, a force of New Zealand, Ghurka and (later) Australian troops launches the attack on “Hill 60”.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Hill_60_(Gallipoli)

Armenian expulsions: Harrowing stories continue to emerge about the forced mass expulsion of Armenians through and out of Anatolia.

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=H0mfmdThGLAC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=21st+august+1915+-gallipoli&source=bl&ots=GIsbap3vY7&sig=H-UY5YAYnsVE2LuaPaZWWKJoyWc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCYQ6AEwADgKahUKEwi1oamG37XHAhUBz3IKHbpHD-0#v=onepage&q=21st%20august%201915%20-gallipoli&f=false

 

18th August 1915 (Wednesday)

BORN TODAY: in Denton, North Carolina – Max Lanier, left handed pitcher.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Lanier

War!

Armenia: The New York Times reports on the horrors of the Turkish treatment of Armenians:
“Armenians are sent to perish in the desert. Turks accused of plan to exterminate Whole Population. People of Karahissar massacred” [New York Times]

http://www.genocide-museum.am/eng/media.php

15th August 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in Stockholm – Signe Eleonora Cecilia Larsson (later, Signe Hasso) Swedish born American actress.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signe_Hasso

Society and Culture: at St Mary Magdalene Parish church in Old Milton, Hampshire, in southern England, Ethel Henrietta Florence Burton (25) marries Frank Rex (“Jimmy”) Fletcher (25).

http://www.ciaofamiglia.com/frfletcher/fletchphotos/Frank_Edward_Fletcher_Family/fletcher_wedding_1915/FR_&_Ethel_marry_1915.htm

Leisure: New Zealand farmer and diarist George Adkin enjoys a Sunday afternoon outing in the country (after church) with friends in their  “lovely Humber car… Maud [his fiance]wore a bewitching black veil tied over a soft hat + her black furs + when she nestled down into the billowy soft cushions + was tucked in with a nice fur rug, she looked like a sweetest little adorable duchess one could imagine.”

http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/Topic/5093

War!

Gallipoli: In response to the continuing failures of allied attacks on the Turkish at Suvla Bay, the British Secretary of War (Kitchener) dismisses the General in charge. Several more senior military men are either dismissed or voluntarily resign, an option sadly not available to the long suffering and frequently dying troops.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landing_at_Suvla_Bay

 On the (British) Home Front: Under the recent National Registration Act, all UK citizens between the ages of 15 and 65 are required today to register as at the their current residential address.

https://derbyscheme.wordpress.com/2013/01/19/national-registration-act-1915/

8th August 1915 (Sunday)

War!

At Gallipoli, the slaughter continues. RIP William George Malone; Harry William Hooper; McKenzie Maxwell;  Cecil Anthony McAnulty; John Henry Adams; Albert Louis Albin; Bertrand Auchterlonie; Harold McClean Avery; Herbert Stanley Back; Thomas Vincent Baker; Andrew Barr; John Robert Baxter;  and so many, many others, including many young Turkish men hidden from google view by my lack of Turkish language skills…

The Battle of Chunuk Bair lasted from August 7th to 19th and claimed 16,000 casualties from the Ottoman and British Empires. [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Chunuk_Bair

7th August 1915 (Saturday)

BORN TODAY:

~ In Aachen, Germany – Herman P Schwan,  the “founding father of biomedical engineering“.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_P._Schwan

~ In Brooklyn, New York City – Gary Underhill, a CIA agent who perhaps knew too much for his own good. Found shot dead in May 1964, and officially ruled as a suicide.

http://spartacus-educational.com/JFKunderhillG.htm

War!

Gallipoli: At the small, but disastrous, “Battle of the Nek”, Australian casualties include 234 out of the 300 men of the 8th Light Horse Regiment (154 killed) and 138 out of 300 from the 10th (80 killed).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Nek

1st August 1915 (Sunday)

BORN TODAY: in the skies over the Western Front – The Fokker Scourge.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fokker_Scourge

Ireland: At the funeral of exiled Irish Fenian Jeremiah O’Donovan Rosse, Pádraig Pearse gives “one of the most famous speeches of the Irish independence movement stirring his audience to a call to arms” [Wikipedia].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeremiah_O%27Donovan_Rossa

The Funeral of Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa, 1st August 1915.

Some, at least, in Ireland, do not forget the call to arms:

https://www.facebook.com/therising2016

War!

In the Near East: the new (and incomplete) Germany to Baghdad railway begins transporting Armenians out of Anatolia and into Aleppo, now a (still troubled) city in Syria. Within 3 weeks, 20,000 are deported, and tales of abuse and atrocities are multiplying. [a report quoted in: “The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916”, by Bryce et al]

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=H0mfmdThGLAC&pg=PA556&lpg=PA556&dq=1st+august+1915&source=bl&ots=GIrjbyYxWc&sig=qQZGkXxAI0jTTVWfwZmdIsnB6Yc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CDwQ6AEwBTh4ahUKEwiXs7zx7oDHAhVBkBQKHTvmA64#v=onepage&q=1st%20august%201915&f=false

26th July 1915 (Monday)

BORN TODAY: in Nidubrolu in Andhra Pradesh, British India – Pragada Kotaiah, freedom fighter and parliamentarian.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragada_Kotaiah

War!

Socialism in Italy: a “rising star” of the Italian socialist party, one Benito Mussolini, expresses the view that “Italian workers should give ‘not a penny’ to the cause of war, nor spill ‘one drop of blood’ for a cause that had ‘nothing to do with it’. If the government failed to declare neutrality, the proletatriat would force it to do so”. [Mark Thompson: “The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919”].

Fire in Constantinople:  A great fire in Istanbul, later attributed to Russian areoplane bombing, destroys over 3000 buildings.

http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=WC19150825.2.49.3

Submarines in the Dardanelles: the French submarine “Mariotte” is sunk by the Ottoman Navy, and its crew taken as prisoners of war.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_shipwrecks_in_July_1915

Discipline on the Western Front: in the largest single judicial execution by the British during the war, 5 members of the 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment are executed on the ramparts of Ypres.

http://www.worcestershireregiment.com/wr.php?main=inc/shot_at_dawn